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The statue was dedicated on October 28, The Statue of Liberty is a figure of a robed woman representing Libertas , a Roman liberty goddess.
A broken chain lies at her feet as she walks forward. The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, and was a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad. Because of the post-war instability in France , work on the statue did not commence until the early s.
In , Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in , and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from to Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds.
The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until and then by the Department of War ; since it has been maintained by the National Park Service.
Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred for safety since In after-dinner conversation at his home near Versailles , Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War , is supposed to have said: In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France.
Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other possible projects; in the late s, he approached Isma'il Pasha , Khedive of Egypt , with a plan to build Progress or Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia ,  a huge lighthouse in the form of an ancient Egyptian female fellah or peasant, robed and holding a torch aloft, at the northern entrance to the Suez Canal in Port Said.
Sketches and models were made of the proposed work, though it was never erected. There was a classical precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: Any large project was further delayed by the Franco-Prussian War , in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia.
In the war, Napoleon III was captured and deposed. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians Alsace-Lorraine , and a more liberal republic was installed in France. Arriving at New York Harbor , Bartholdi focused on Bedloe's Island now named Liberty Island as a site for the statue, struck by the fact that vessels arriving in New York had to sail past it.
He was delighted to learn that the island was owned by the United States government—it had been ceded by the New York State Legislature in for harbor defense. It was thus, as he put it in a letter to Laboulaye: Grant , who assured him that it would not be difficult to obtain the site for the statue. Bartholdi had made a first model of his concept in Bartholdi continued to develop the concept following his return to France. One of these was the Lion of Belfort , a monumental sculpture carved in sandstone below the fortress of Belfort , which during the war had resisted a Prussian siege for over three months.
Bartholdi and Laboulaye considered how best to express the idea of American liberty. Columbia had supplanted the earlier figure of an Indian princess , which had come to be regarded as uncivilized and derogatory toward Americans. A Liberty figure adorned most American coins of the time,  and representations of Liberty appeared in popular and civic art, including Thomas Crawford 's Statue of Freedom atop the dome of the United States Capitol Building.
Artists of the 18th and 19th centuries striving to evoke republican ideals commonly used representations of Libertas as an allegorical symbol. In this painting, which commemorates France's Revolution of , a half-clothed Liberty leads an armed mob over the bodies of the fallen. Crawford's statue was designed in the early s. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus , the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome.
Secretary of War Jefferson Davis , a Southerner who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America , was concerned that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. He ordered that it be changed to a helmet. Instead, he used a diadem , or crown, to top its head. Bartholdi's early models were all similar in concept: According to popular accounts, the face was modeled after that of Charlotte Beysser Bartholdi, the sculptor's mother,  but Regis Huber, the curator of the Bartholdi Museum is on record as saying that this, as well as other similar speculations, have no basis in fact.
He gave it bold classical contours and applied simplified modeling, reflecting the huge scale of the project and its solemn purpose. The surfaces should be broad and simple, defined by a bold and clear design, accentuated in the important places. The enlargement of the details or their multiplicity is to be feared. By exaggerating the forms, in order to render them more clearly visible, or by enriching them with details, we would destroy the proportion of the work.
Finally, the model, like the design, should have a summarized character, such as one would give to a rapid sketch. Only it is necessary that this character should be the product of volition and study, and that the artist, concentrating his knowledge, should find the form and the line in its greatest simplicity.
Bartholdi made alterations in the design as the project evolved. Bartholdi considered having Liberty hold a broken chain, but decided this would be too divisive in the days after the Civil War. The erected statue does stride over a broken chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground.
By , France was enjoying improved political stability and a recovering postwar economy. Growing interest in the upcoming Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia led Laboulaye to decide it was time to seek public support. With the announcement, the statue was given a name, Liberty Enlightening the World. Despite its initial focus on the elites, the Union was successful in raising funds from across French society.
Laboulaye's political allies supported the call, as did descendants of the French contingent in the American Revolutionary War. Less idealistically, contributions came from those who hoped for American support in the French attempt to build the Panama Canal. The copper may have come from multiple sources and some of it is said to have come from a mine in Visnes , Norway,  though this has not been conclusively determined after testing samples.
Although plans for the statue had not been finalized, Bartholdi moved forward with fabrication of the right arm, bearing the torch, and the head. The exhibition grounds contained a number of monumental artworks to compete for fairgoers' interest, including an outsized fountain designed by Bartholdi. During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union.
Hayes , who took office the following day, selected the Bedloe's Island site that Bartholdi had proposed. On his return to Paris in , Bartholdi concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the Paris World's Fair. Fundraising continued, with models of the statue put on sale.
The head and arm had been built with assistance from Viollet-le-Duc, who fell ill in He soon died, leaving no indication of how he intended to transition from the copper skin to his proposed masonry pier. Eiffel opted not to use a completely rigid structure, which would force stresses to accumulate in the skin and lead eventually to cracking.
A secondary skeleton was attached to the center pylon, then, to enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor and as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure to the skin using flat iron bars  which culminated in a mesh of metal straps, known as "saddles", that were riveted to the skin, providing firm support.
In a labor-intensive process, each saddle had to be crafted individually. Eiffel's design made the statue one of the earliest examples of curtain wall construction, in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing , but is instead supported by an interior framework. He included two interior spiral staircases , to make it easier for visitors to reach the observation point in the crown. The change in structural material from masonry to iron allowed Bartholdi to change his plans for the statue's assembly.
He had originally expected to assemble the skin on-site as the masonry pier was built; instead he decided to build the statue in France and have it disassembled and transported to the United States for reassembly in place on Bedloe's Island. In a symbolic act, the first rivet placed into the skin, fixing a copper plate onto the statue's big toe, was driven by United States Ambassador to France Levi P. He was succeeded as chairman of the French committee by Ferdinand de Lesseps , builder of the Suez Canal.
The completed statue was formally presented to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, , and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York. The committees in the United States faced great difficulties in obtaining funds for the construction of the pedestal. The Panic of had led to an economic depression that persisted through much of the decade. The Liberty statue project was not the only such undertaking that had difficulty raising money: In the years following the Civil War, most Americans preferred realistic artworks depicting heroes and events from the nation's history, rather than allegorical works like the Liberty statue.
Bartholdi and our French cousins had 'gone the whole figure' while they were about it, and given us statue and pedestal at once. The foundation of Bartholdi's statue was to be laid inside Fort Wood , a disused army base on Bedloe's Island constructed between and Since , it had rarely been used, though during the Civil War, it had served as a recruiting station. The statue's foundation and pedestal were aligned so that it would face southeast, greeting ships entering the harbor from the Atlantic Ocean.
Within months, Hunt submitted a detailed plan, indicating that he expected construction to take about nine months. Hunt's pedestal design contains elements of classical architecture, including Doric portals, as well as some elements influenced by Aztec architecture. The four sides are identical in appearance. Above the door on each side, there are ten disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states between and , there were 38 U.
Above that, a balcony was placed on each side, framed by pillars. Bartholdi placed an observation platform near the top of the pedestal, above which the statue itself rises. Financial concerns again forced him to revise his plans; the final design called for poured concrete walls, up to 20 feet 6.
His work involved design computations, detailed fabrication and construction drawings, and oversight of construction. Fundraising for the statue had begun in The committee organized a large number of money-raising events. She initially declined, stating she could not write a poem about a statue. At the time, she was also involved in aiding refugees to New York who had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in eastern Europe.
These refugees were forced to live in conditions that the wealthy Lazarus had never experienced. She saw a way to express her empathy for these refugees in terms of the statue.
Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. With the project in jeopardy, groups from other American cities, including Boston and Philadelphia, offered to pay the full cost of erecting the statue in return for relocating it./p>
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The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United jti-innovation.com copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and built by Gustave Eiffel.