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Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller July 8, — January 26, was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from to , and previously as the 49th Governor of New York — Roosevelt and Harry S. A member of the wealthy Rockefeller family , he was a noted art collector and served as administrator of Rockefeller Center in Manhattan , New York.
Rockefeller was a Republican who was often considered to be liberal , progressive ,  or moderate. In his time, liberals in the Republican Party were called " Rockefeller Republicans ". As Governor of New York from to , Rockefeller's achievements included the expansion of the State University of New York , efforts to protect the environment, the construction of the Governor Nelson A.
After unsuccessfully seeking the Republican presidential nomination in , , and , Rockefeller served as Vice President of the United States under President Gerald R.
Ford , who ascended to the presidency following the August resignation of Richard Nixon over the Watergate scandal. Rockefeller was the second vice president appointed to the position under the 25th Amendment , following Ford himself. Rockefeller decided not to join the Republican ticket with Ford, and he retired from politics in As a businessman, Rockefeller was president and later chair of Rockefeller Center, Inc.
Rockefeller assembled a significant art collection and promoted public access to the arts. He served as trustee, treasurer, and president of the Museum of Modern Art , and founded the Museum of Primitive Art in In the area of philanthropy, he founded the Rockefeller Brothers Fund in with his four brothers and established the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in Rockefeller was born on July 8, , in Bar Harbor, Maine.
He was the second son of financier and philanthropist John Davison Rockefeller Jr. Laurance , Winthrop , and David.
Their father, John Jr. Rockefeller received his elementary, middle and high school education at the Lincoln School in New York City, an experimental school administered by Teachers College of Columbia University. In he graduated cum laude with an A. Following his graduation, he worked in a number of family-related businesses, including Chase National Bank ; Rockefeller Center , Inc. From to he served as a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art , where he also served as treasurer, —39, and president, —41 and — He and his four brothers established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund , a philanthropy, in , where he served as trustee, —75 and —79, and as president in Rockefeller was a patient of famous psychic Edgar Cayce.
Rockefeller served as a member of the Westchester County Board of Health, — His service with Creole Petroleum led to his deep, lifelong interest in Latin America. He became fluent in the Spanish language. In , after he expressed his concern to President Franklin D.
The Roosevelt administration encouraged Hollywood to produce films to encourage positive relations with Latin America. It was much more popular in the United States than in Latin America. Charlie Chaplin 's satirical The Great Dictator was banned in several countries. The conference produced the Act of Chapultepec , which provided the framework for economic, social and defense cooperation among the nations of the Americas, and set the principle that an attack on one of these nations would be regarded as an attack on all and jointly resisted.
Rockefeller signed the Act on behalf of the United States. Rockefeller was a member of the U. At the Conference there was considerable opposition to the idea of permitting, within the UN charter, the formation of regional pacts such as the Act of Chapultepec.
Rockefeller, who believed that the inclusion was essential, especially to U. He intermittently served as president of both through AIA was a philanthropy for the dissemination of technical and managerial expertise and equipment to underdeveloped countries to support grass-roots efforts in overcoming illiteracy, disease and poverty.
It was hoped the success of these companies would encourage investors in those countries to set up competing or supporting businesses and further stimulate the local economy. He maintained a home at Monte Sacro, the farm in Venezuela. Rockefeller returned to public service in when President Harry S.
In President-Elect Dwight D. Eisenhower asked Rockefeller to Chair the President's Advisory Committee on Government Organization to recommend ways of improving efficiency and effectiveness of the executive branch of the federal government. Rockefeller recommended thirteen reorganization plans, all of which were implemented. The plans implemented organizational changes in the Department of Defense, the Office of Defense Mobilization and the Department of Agriculture.
His recommendations also led to the creation of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Rockefeller was appointed Under-Secretary of this new department in Rockefeller was active in HEW 's legislative program and implemented measures that added ten million people under the Social Security program.
He was tasked with providing the President with advice and assistance in developing programs by which the various departments of the government could counter Soviet foreign policy challenges. As part of this responsibility he was named as the President's representative on the Operations Coordinating Board , a committee of the National Security Council. The OCB's purpose was to oversee coordinated execution of security policy and plans, including clandestine operations.
Rockefeller broadly interpreted his directive and became an advocate for foreign economic aid as indispensable to national security. Humphrey for financial reasons. The Quantico panel developed a proposal called "open skies" wherein the U. Thus military buildups would be revealed and the danger of surprise attacks minimized. It was a counter proposal to the Soviet proposal of universal disarmament. The feeling was that the Soviets could not refuse the proposal if they were serious about disarmament.
In March Rockefeller proposed the creation of the Planning Coordination Group , a small high level group that would plan and develop national security operations, both overt and covert. The group's purpose was to oversee CIA operation and other anti-communist actions. In , he created the Special Studies Project , a major seven-panel planning group directed by Henry Kissinger and funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, of which he was then president. It was an ambitious study created to define the central problems and opportunities facing the U.
The reports were published individually as they were released and were republished together in as Prospect for America: The Rockefeller Panel Reports.
The Special Studies Project came into national prominence with the early release of its military subpanel's report, whose principal recommendation was a massive military buildup to counter a then-perceived military superiority threat posed by the USSR.
The report was released two months after the October launch of Sputnik , and its recommendations were fully endorsed by Eisenhower in his January State of the Union address. This initial contact with Kissinger was to develop into a lifelong relationship; Kissinger was later to be described as his closest intellectual associate.
From this period Rockefeller employed Kissinger as a personally funded part-time consultant, principally on foreign policy issues, until the appointment to his staff became full-time in late Rockefeller resigned from the federal government in to focus on New York State and on national politics.
That was followed by his chairmanship of the Special Legislative Committee on the Revision and Simplification of the Constitution. In the state election of , he was elected governor of New York by over , votes, defeating incumbent W. Averell Harriman , even though was a banner year for Democrats elsewhere in the nation. Rockefeller was re-elected in the three subsequent elections in , and , increasing the state's role in education, environmental protection, transportation, housing, welfare, medical aid, civil rights, and the arts.
To pay for the increased government spending Rockefeller increased taxation - for example a Sales Tax was introduced in New York in He resigned three years into his fourth term to work at the Commission on Critical Choices for Americans. Rockefeller was the driving force in turning the State University of New York into the largest system of public higher education in the United States.
Under his governorship it grew from 29 campuses and 38, full-time students to 72 campuses and , full-time students. Other accomplishments included more than quadrupling state aid to primary and secondary schools; providing the first state financial support for educational television; and requiring special education for children with disabilities in public schools.
Consistent with his personal interest in design and planning, Rockefeller began expansion of the New York State Parks system and improvement of park facilities. This led to his introduction to the Legislature in of a bill to create the controversial Adirondack Park Agency ,  which was designed to protect the Adirondack State Park from encroaching development.
Also, he launched the Pure Waters Program, the first state bond issue to end water pollution; created the Department of Environmental Conservation; banned DDT and other pesticides ; and established the Office of Parks and Recreation. Rockefeller introduced the state's first support for mass transportation. He also created the State Department of Transportation. In taking over control of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, Rockefeller shifted power away from Robert Moses , and in doing so became the first politician to win such a battle with the master builder Moses in decades.
Under the New York MTA, toll revenue collected from the bridges and tunnels, which had previously been used to build more bridges, tunnels, and highways, now went to support mass transportation operations, thus shifting costs from general state funds to the motorist.
In one controversial move, Rockefeller abandoned one of Moses's most desired projects, a Long Island Sound bridge from Rye to Oyster Bay , in due to environmental opposition. To create more low-income housing, Rockefeller created the New York State Urban Development Corporation UDC , with unprecedented powers to override local zoning , condemn property , and create financing schemes to carry out desired development.
The financing involved the creation of a new sort of bond—what came to be called "moral obligation" bonds. They were not backed by the full faith and credit of the State, but the quasi-public arrangements were meant to, and did, convey the impression that the State would not let them fail.
Rockefeller is criticized in some quarters for having contributed to the " Too Big To Fail " phenomenon in U. By , the Rockefeller administration had completed or started over 88, units of housing for limited income families and the aging.
In the area of public assistance the Rockefeller administration carried out the largest state medical care program for the needy in the United States under Medicaid ; achieved the first major decline in New York State's welfare rolls since World War II; required employable welfare recipients to take available jobs or job training; began the state breakfast program for children in low income areas; and established the first state loan fund for nonprofit groups to start day-care centers.
Rockefeller achieved virtual total prohibition of discrimination in housing and places of public accommodation. He outlawed " block-busting " as a means of artificially depressing housing values and banned discrimination in the sale of all forms of insurance.
Rockefeller created the first State Council on the Arts in the country, which became a model for the National Endowment for the Arts. During his fifteen years as governor Rockefeller doubled the size of the state police, established the New York State Police Academy, adopted the " stop and frisk " and " no-knock " laws to strengthen police powers, and authorized additional state judgeships to reduce court congestion.
In Rockefeller signed legislation abandoning that and establishing a two-stage trial for murder cases with punishment determined in the second stage.
Georgia in the Northeast. Rockefeller was also a supporter of the " law and order " platform. What became known as the " Rockefeller drug laws " were a product of Rockefeller's attempt to deal with the rapid increase in narcotics addiction and related crime./p>
To pay for the increased government spending Rockefeller increased taxation - for example a Sales Tax was introduced in New York in He resigned three years into his fourth term to work at the Commission on Critical Choices for Americans.
Rockefeller was the driving force in turning the State University of New York into the largest system of public higher education in the United States.
Under his governorship it grew from 29 campuses and 38, full-time students to 72 campuses and , full-time students. Other accomplishments included more than quadrupling state aid to primary and secondary schools; providing the first state financial support for educational television; and requiring special education for children with disabilities in public schools. Consistent with his personal interest in design and planning, Rockefeller began expansion of the New York State Parks system and improvement of park facilities.
This led to his introduction to the Legislature in of a bill to create the controversial Adirondack Park Agency ,  which was designed to protect the Adirondack State Park from encroaching development. Also, he launched the Pure Waters Program, the first state bond issue to end water pollution; created the Department of Environmental Conservation; banned DDT and other pesticides ; and established the Office of Parks and Recreation.
Rockefeller introduced the state's first support for mass transportation. He also created the State Department of Transportation. In taking over control of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, Rockefeller shifted power away from Robert Moses , and in doing so became the first politician to win such a battle with the master builder Moses in decades.
Under the New York MTA, toll revenue collected from the bridges and tunnels, which had previously been used to build more bridges, tunnels, and highways, now went to support mass transportation operations, thus shifting costs from general state funds to the motorist. In one controversial move, Rockefeller abandoned one of Moses's most desired projects, a Long Island Sound bridge from Rye to Oyster Bay , in due to environmental opposition. To create more low-income housing, Rockefeller created the New York State Urban Development Corporation UDC , with unprecedented powers to override local zoning , condemn property , and create financing schemes to carry out desired development.
The financing involved the creation of a new sort of bond—what came to be called "moral obligation" bonds. They were not backed by the full faith and credit of the State, but the quasi-public arrangements were meant to, and did, convey the impression that the State would not let them fail. Rockefeller is criticized in some quarters for having contributed to the " Too Big To Fail " phenomenon in U.
By , the Rockefeller administration had completed or started over 88, units of housing for limited income families and the aging. In the area of public assistance the Rockefeller administration carried out the largest state medical care program for the needy in the United States under Medicaid ; achieved the first major decline in New York State's welfare rolls since World War II; required employable welfare recipients to take available jobs or job training; began the state breakfast program for children in low income areas; and established the first state loan fund for nonprofit groups to start day-care centers.
Rockefeller achieved virtual total prohibition of discrimination in housing and places of public accommodation. He outlawed " block-busting " as a means of artificially depressing housing values and banned discrimination in the sale of all forms of insurance. Rockefeller created the first State Council on the Arts in the country, which became a model for the National Endowment for the Arts.
During his fifteen years as governor Rockefeller doubled the size of the state police, established the New York State Police Academy, adopted the " stop and frisk " and " no-knock " laws to strengthen police powers, and authorized additional state judgeships to reduce court congestion. In Rockefeller signed legislation abandoning that and establishing a two-stage trial for murder cases with punishment determined in the second stage. Georgia in the Northeast. Rockefeller was also a supporter of the " law and order " platform.
What became known as the " Rockefeller drug laws " were a product of Rockefeller's attempt to deal with the rapid increase in narcotics addiction and related crime. In , he proposed a program of voluntary rehabilitation for addicted convicts rather than prison time. This was approved by the legislature, but by it was evident that this program was not working, as most addicts chose short prison terms rather than three years of treatment.
Rockefeller then turned to a program of compulsory treatment, rehabilitation, and aftercare for three years. While this program saw success in rehabilitating addicts, it did little to reduce the narcotics trade and associated crime.
Rockefeller was also frustrated by his belief that the federal government was not doing anything significant to address the problem. Feeling that existing laws and the way they were being implemented did not solve the problem of the "drug pusher", and pressured by voters angry about the drug problem, Rockefeller proposed a hard-line approach. Public support for the measures was mixed, as were the results. They did not lead more addicts to seek rehabilitation as hoped, and ultimately did not solve the problem of drug trafficking.
These were among the toughest drug laws in the United States when they were enacted and are still on the books, albeit in moderated form. New York also provided the financial support for research in methadone maintenance and the administration of the largest methadone maintenance program in the US.
On September 9, , prisoners at the state penitentiary at Attica, NY, took control of a cell block and seized thirty-nine correctional officers as hostages. After four days of negotiations, Department of Correctional Services Commissioner Russell Oswald agreed to most of the inmates' demands for various reforms but refused to grant complete amnesty to the rioters, with passage out of the country and removal of the prison's superintendent.
When negotiations stalled and the hostages appeared to be in imminent danger, Rockefeller ordered New York State Police and national guard troops to restore order and take back the prison on September Thirty nine people died in the assault, including ten of the hostages.
An additional eighty people were wounded in what was called " a turkey shoot " by state prosecutor Malcolm Bell. A later investigation showed all but three of the deaths were caused by the gunfire of the National Guard and police. The other three were inmates killed by other inmates at the beginning of the riot. Opponents blamed Rockefeller for these deaths in part because of his refusal to go to the prison and negotiate with the inmates, while his supporters, including many conservatives who had often vocally differed with him in the past, defended his actions as being necessary to the preservation of law and order.
In a telephone call with President Nixon , Rockefeller explained the deaths by saying "that's life. Rockefeller engaged in massive building projects that left a profound mark on the state of New York. Some of his detractors claimed that he had an "Edifice Complex. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza by Gov. Hugh Carey in State Office Building in Harlem.
The building was ultimately completed in While in office he supported the construction of the World Trade Center. Rockefeller worked with the legislature and unions to create generous pension programs for many public workers, such as teachers, professors, firefighters, police officers, and prison guards. He proposed the first statewide minimum wage law in the U. Rockefeller supported reform of New York's abortion laws beginning around The proposals supported by his administration would not have repealed the long-standing prohibition, but would have expanded the exceptions allowed for the protection of the mother's health, or in circumstances of fetal abnormality.
The reform bills did not pass. However, when an outright repeal of the prohibition managed to pass in , Rockefeller signed it. In , he vetoed another bill that would have restored the abortion ban.
He said in his veto message, "I do not believe it right for one group to impose its vision of morality on an entire society.
Reflecting his interdisciplinary approach to problem solving Rockefeller took a pragmatic approach to governing. In their book Rockefeller of New York: Rather, he considered himself a practical problem solver, much more interested in defining problems and finding solutions around which he could unite support sufficient to ensure their enactment in legislation than in following either a strictly liberal or strictly conservative course.
Rockefeller's programs did not consistently follow either liberal or conservative ideology. In the later years of his administration "conservative decisions on social programs were paralleled by liberal ones on environmental issues. As governor, Rockefeller spent more than his predecessors. Rockefeller had good relations with unions, especially the construction trades, which benefited from his extensive building programs.
In foreign affairs, Rockefeller supported U. He also supported the U. As a result of Rockefeller's policies, some conservatives sought to gain leverage by creating the Conservative Party of New York. The small party acted as a minor counterweight to the Liberal Party of New York. They were often used to issue bonds in order to avoid the requirement of a vote of the people for the issuance of a bond; such authority-issued bonds bore higher interest than if they had been issued directly by the state.
Rockefeller sought the Republican presidential nomination in , , and His bid in the primary ended early when then-Vice President Richard Nixon surged ahead in the polls. After quitting the campaign, Rockefeller backed Nixon and concentrated his efforts on introducing more moderate planks into Nixon's platform.
Rockefeller, as the leader of the Republicans' "Eastern Establishment," began as the front-runner for the nomination against conservative Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, who led the right wing of the Republican Party. The divorce was widely condemned by politicians, such as liberal Senator Prescott Bush of Connecticut, who condemned his infidelity, divorce, and remarriage. He then endured poor showings in several more of the party primaries before winning an upset in Oregon in May. Rockefeller took a strong lead in the California primary, and his team seemed so assured of his victory that it cut advertising funds in the last days of his campaign.
However, the birth of Rockefeller's child three days before the California primary put the divorce and remarriage issue back in the minds of voters, and on primary election day, Rockefeller narrowly lost the California primary and dropped out of the race.
At a discouraging point in the California primary campaign against Goldwater, his top political aide Stuart Spencer called on Rockefeller to "summon that fabled nexus of money, influence, and condescension known as the Eastern Establishment.
However, at the Republican National Convention in San Francisco in July, Rockefeller was given five minutes to speak before the convention in defense of five amendments to the party platform put forth by the moderate wing of the Republican Party  to counter the Goldwater plank. He was booed and heckled for sixteen minutes while he stood firmly at the podium insisting on his right to speak.
Rockefeller was reluctant to support Goldwater in the general election. Rockefeller again sought the presidential nomination in the primaries. In the contest, Rockefeller again represented the liberals, Reagan representing the conservatives, and Nixon representing moderates and liberals also.
Rather than formally announce his candidacy and enter the state primaries, Rockefeller spent the first half of , alternating between hints that he would run and pronouncements that he would not be a candidate.
Shortly before the Republican convention, Rockefeller finally let it be known that he was available to be the nominee, and he sought to round up uncommitted delegates and woo reluctant Nixon delegates to his banner, armed with public opinion polls that showed him doing better among voters than either Nixon or Reagan against Democrat Hubert Humphrey.
Despite Rockefeller's efforts, Nixon won the nomination on the first ballot. He played a ceremonial role with no scope for his energies. Rockefeller was not a candidate for a full term in , and Ford selected Bob Dole as his running mate. Because the perception was that the Alliance for Progress was a failure, shortly after taking office, on February 17, , President Richard Nixon commissioned a study to assess the state of Latin America. Nixon appointed his most powerful political rival, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, to direct the study.
The poor relationship between the two politicians suggested that Nixon would not be that interested in the results of the study. There was a lack of interest for the region in the late s to early s. In April and May , at the request of President Nixon, Rockefeller and a team of 23 advisors visited 20 American republics during four trips to solicit opinions of U. Most of the trips turned out to be an embarrassment.
Among the recommendations in Rockefeller's report to the President were preferential trade agreements with Latin American countries, refinancing the region's foreign debt, and removing bureaucratic impediments that prevented the efficient use of U. The Nixon administration did little to implement the report's recommendations. The major part of the Rockefeller report suggested a reduction of U.
Because there was little the United States should or could do toward changing the political atmosphere in other countries, there was no reason to attempt to use economic aid as a political tool. This was the justification to reduce economic aid in Latin America. The Rockefeller report called for some aid to continue, but the report recommended creating more effective aid programs. In May President Nixon appointed Rockefeller chairman of the National Commission on Water Quality, charged with determining the technological, economic, social and environmental implications of meeting water quality standards mandated by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of The Commission issued its report in March and he testified before Congress on its findings.
He served until July Peterson to establish the Commission on Critical Choices for Americans , and served as chairman until December It was made up of a nationally representative, bipartisan group of 42 prominent Americans drawn from far-ranging fields of interest who served on a voluntary basis. Members included the majority and minority leaders of both houses of Congress. The Commission gathered information and insights to better understand the problems facing America, and to present to the American public the "critical choices" to be made in facing those problems.
Rockefeller resigned as Governor of New York in December , devoting himself to the Commission, and to readiness for national office. In considering potential nominees, Rockefeller was one of three primary candidates. Bush , who would eventually become Vice President in his own right for two terms and President for one term.
This was not the first time that Rockefeller was under consideration for vice president. Rockefeller had also declined to become Nixon's running mate in the presidential election. While acknowledging that many conservatives opposed Rockefeller, Ford believed he would bring executive expertise to the administration and broaden the ticket's appeal if they ran in , given Rockefeller's ability to attract support from constituencies that did not typically support Republicans, including organized labor, African Americans , Hispanics , and city dwellers.
Ford also felt he could demonstrate his own self-confidence by selecting a strong personality like Rockefeller for the number two spot. It was entirely a question of there being a Constitutional crisis and a crisis of confidence on the part of the American people I felt there was a duty incumbent on any American who could do anything that would contribute to a restoration of confidence in the democratic process and in the integrity of government.
Rockefeller was also persuaded by Ford's promise to make him "a full partner" in his presidency, especially in domestic policy. Rockefeller underwent extended hearings before Congress, suffering embarrassment when it was revealed he made massive gifts to senior aides, such as Henry Kissinger , and used his personal fortune to finance a scurrilous biography of political opponent Arthur Goldberg.
Although conservative Republicans were not pleased that Rockefeller was picked, most of them voted for his confirmation; nevertheless, a minority bloc including Barry Goldwater , Jesse Helms and Trent Lott voted against him. The New York Conservative Party also opposed his confirmation.
On the left, Americans for Democratic Action opposed Rockefeller's confirmation because it said his wealth posed too much of a conflict of interest. The Senate had given its approval December 10, , 90 to 7. The House confirmed his nomination to on December Rockefeller often seemed concerned that Ford gave him little or no power, and few tasks, while he was vice president. Ford initially said he wanted Rockefeller to chair the Domestic Policy Council , but Ford's new White House staff had no intention of sharing power with the vice president and his staff.
Rockefeller's attempt to take charge of domestic policy was thwarted by Chief of Staff Rumsfeld, who objected to policy makers reporting to the president through the vice president. When Rockefeller had one of his former aides, James Cannon, appointed executive director of the Domestic Council, Rumsfeld cut its budget.
Rockefeller was excluded from the decision making process on many important issues. When he learned that Ford had proposed cuts in federal taxes and spending he responded: Ford also put Rockefeller in charge of his " Whip Inflation Now " initiative.
This residence had previously been the residence of the Chief of Naval Operations. Previous vice presidents had been responsible for maintaining their own homes at their own expense, but the necessity of full-time Secret Service security had made this custom impractical. Rockefeller already had a well-secured Washington residence and never lived in the home as a principal residence, although he did host several official functions there.
His wealth enabled him to donate millions of dollars of furnishings to the house. Rockefeller was slow to make use of Air Force Two , the official vice-presidential aircraft.
Instead, he continued to use his own Gulfstream which had the callsign Executive Two as a private aircraft. Rockefeller felt he was saving taxpayer money this way. Finally the Secret Service convinced him it was costing more to fly agents around separately for his protective detail than it would for him to travel on Air Force Two with them.
On May 13, , Rockefeller visited the earthquake -stricken areas of Friuli in Italy near Aviano Air Base and presented a donation to the local population. With the moderate Ford facing continued difficulty in securing the support of conservative Republicans for the presidential nomination, and anticipating a challenge from the conservative Ronald Reagan , he considered the possibility of another running mate, and discussed it with Rockefeller.
In November Rockefeller offered to withdraw. Ford eventually concurred, and in explaining his decision Rockefeller said that he "didn't come down to Washington to get caught up in party squabbles which only make it more difficult for the President in a very difficult time After Ford was nominated at the Republican National Convention , Reagan, Barry Goldwater , and other prominent conservatives conditioned their support for Ford on his selection of a suitable vice presidential nominee.
Ford considered several candidates, including moderate-to-liberal Republicans such as William Ruckelshaus , and moderate-to-conservative Republicans including Bob Dole , and eventually decided upon Dole as the most acceptable to conservatives.
As of , Ford is the last incumbent president to not have his incumbent vice president as his running mate. Ford later said not choosing Rockefeller was one of his biggest mistakes,  and "one of the few cowardly things I did in my life. Rockefeller campaigned actively for the Republican ticket, and Ford lost narrowly to Jimmy Carter. In what would become an iconic photo of the campaign, Rockefeller famously responded to hecklers at a rally in Binghamton, New York with a raised middle finger.
Writing about the moment 20 years later, Michael Oricchio of the San Jose Mercury News said the action became known euphemistically as 'the Rockefeller gesture'. Rockefeller served as a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art from to He also served as treasurer, —, and president, — and — In Rockefeller was a member of the committee selecting art for the new Rockefeller Center.
For the wall opposite the main entrance of 30 Rockefeller Plaza Nelson Rockefeller wanted Henri Matisse or Pablo Picasso to paint a mural because he favored their modern style , but neither was available. Diego Rivera was one of Nelson Rockefeller's mother's favorite artists and therefore was commissioned to create the huge mural. He was given a theme: Rockefeller wanted the painting to make people pause and think. The sketch featured an anonymous man at the center.
However, when it was painted the work caused great controversy due to the inclusion of a painting of Lenin depicting communism just off-center. The work was paid for on May 22, , and immediately draped. Rockefeller suggested that the fresco could be donated to the Museum of Modern Art, but the trustees of the museum were not interested.
Rivera responded by saying that it was "cultural vandalism". Rockefeller was a noted collector of both modern and non-Western art.
He continued his mother's work at the Museum of Modern Art as president, and turned the basement of his Kykuit mansion into a gallery while placing works of sculpture around the grounds an activity he enjoyed personally supervising, frequently moving the pieces from place to place by helicopter.
Rockefeller's early visits to Mexico kindled a collecting interest in pre-Columbian and contemporary Mexican art, to which he added works of traditional African and Pacific Island art. His personal collection formed the core of the collection. In he gave the museum's collection to the Metropolitan Museum of Art where it became the Michael C. In , Alfred A. Knopf published a book on primitive art from Rockefeller's collection. In he founded Nelson Rockefeller Collection, Inc. In the introduction to the NRC catalog he stated he was motivated by his desire to share with others "the joy of living with these beautiful objects.
They had five children:. Michael disappeared in New Guinea in November , presumed drowned while trying to swim to shore after his dugout canoe capsized. Nelson and Mary were divorced in He and his second wife had two sons together:. Nelson and Happy Rockefeller moved to a penthouse that encompassed the top three floors at Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.
The two spaces connected via a flight of six steps. Rockefeller engaged in numerous extramarital affairs during both his marriages. His first wife resented his adultery, which was one of the main reasons for their divorce. There has been speculation surrounding Malinda Fitler Murphy b.
In his diary, Rockefeller intimate Ken Riland used a tone of knowing irony when mentioning Malinda, putting the word stepfather in quotes. Rockefeller died on January 26, , at age 70 from a heart attack. An initial report had incorrectly stated that he was at his office at Rockefeller Center working on a book about his art collection, and a security guard found him slumped over his desk.
Marshack had worked for Rockefeller when he served as vice president, had relocated to New York and continued to work for him after his term as vice president ended, and had received financial assistance from Rockefeller in purchasing and furnishing a condominium several doors down from his Manhattan townhouse.
The circumstances of Rockefeller's death led to speculation regarding the possibility of an adulterous relationship between Rockefeller and Marshack. Neither Marshack nor the family has ever commented publicly on the circumstances surrounding Rockefeller's death. On January 29, , family and close friends gathered to inter his ashes in the private Rockefeller family cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York.
Senate and House of Representatives including Senator Barry Goldwater , and official representatives from 71 foreign countries. Eulogies were delivered by two of Rockefeller's children, his brother David , and former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. There is also a healthy number of mature folks seeking interracial and same room sex but wishing to avoid sites like backpage.
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Those couples are always in huge demand. It's the lifestyle where many bi-curious wives take their first big step into a whole world of never before seen pleasure. Generally, when partners look for single males to hookup with, they want an online profile that pushes all of their buttons.
Consider it another alternative to Craigslist escorts. When creating your profile, don't lie and don't leave anything out. You just never know who you might appeal to in personals. And with nearly Always remember that getting started in this lifestyle using swinger personals is the first step. Thinking about it will never make it happen, so why not get things started today? If you're a couple, you really should include recent pictures that show both of you.
And the more pictures the better. Those who only post pictures of their lady get very few responses, as you might imagine. People like to see "the whole package. It's very easy to locate other people for casual sexual encounters at orgies utilizing the listings.
It only takes a few minutes of your time right from the comfort of your home to find real partners using personal ads, including black, Asian, Latino, and Hispanics, that are wife swappers and using local swinger ads. They're in search of casual sex or they would not be members.
And we have yet to find the scams that we've encountered on Craigslist and backpage. States along the West Coast and the Southeast seem to have the most members interested in wife swapping and gay and lesbian action listed in swinger ads.
Online listings posted by members looking to attend parties and girlfriend swapping orgies seem to abound in areas like the Midwest and Northeast. Rural areas are also quickly becoming hotspots for orgies and same room sex, but it's much more common in Las Vegas, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Tampa, Minneapolis and Miami.
Last year, Susan Patton, a Princeton grad and the mother of two sons at the has penned "Marry Smart," a book of dating advice for young women. hold your head high and get in the habit of looking people in the eye,” says Patton. . Patton also thinks you should keep details of your sex life to yourself. Candace Bushnell's Sex in the City: This column was originally published in the No guy in New York would have married her.” “Women in New York know. Suddenly Jerry and his wife were watching the guy turn off. A divorced woman seeking no-strings-attached liaisons learns a to your wife, ' Look, I love you and the kids but I need sex in my life. . of the New York edition with the headline: What Sleeping With Married Men Taught Me.