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There is a concern that the Internet could be used to commit crimes and that advanced encryption could disguise such activity. However, we do not provide the government with phone jacks outside our homes for unlimited wiretaps. Why, then, should we grant government the Orwellian capability to listen at will and in real time to our communications across the Web? The truth is, the quote is about opposition to an NSA-sponsored surveillance initiative. But the quote comes from And it comes from none other than John Ashcroft.

Given the state of our current debate about government surveillance of communications and our online lives, I thought it would be instructive to look back at the clipper chip debate and see what lessons we could glean from it.

Long before the fight against PIPA and SOPA, this was the first time that citizens of the net rose up and proved they were a constituency that mattered. After all, the clipper chip was defeated. Back in the early s, the Internet was just going mainstream. But the Internet rose to prominence soon after the Info-Bahn hype, so most people assumed they were the same thing.

It was the time of the launch of Wired magazine; of the Mosaic browser; of freeware and shareware. It seemed the promise of cyberspace would be corralled and caged before it could even get going. It would be the US Government. Into the midst of this early tech euphoria, waded the National Security Administration. At the time, the NSA was the less well-known sibling of the CIA, tasked since the Truman administration with the code-making and code-breaking aspects of the espionage game.

In , only 22 percent of American households owned a computer, but that would more than double in a few short years. And computers had made great inroads in corporate America. And the general telecom revolution was starting to hit its stride as well.

Cellular telephony was on the horizon. Now things were done via ones and zeros, zipping around the world at the speed of light. Thus, the NSA found the role and the relevancy that it perhaps was born for.

And this is perhaps our first great lesson from history: The NSA first became interested in the digital world because it feared encryption. Encryption means unbreakable codes. But breaking into digitally encrypted communications is orders of magnitude harder. Especially in the era of powerful computers, once you put information into digital form, the math is such that there is a very real possibility that you will never break the code.

Clearly, the NSA was one of of those aware of this looming problem, and they were worried they might soon be unable to do their job. So they decided to get ahead of the issue, before they were locked out of the coming wave of digital communications. If the government could prove for example, via a traditional warrant, okayed by a judge that the communication in question needed to be un-encrypted for the purposes of law enforcement, then the third key could be used to unlock everything.

But clearly, the scheme could be implemented in the manufacture of computers, fax machines, pagers and the like further down the road. The algorithm was initially classified as SECRET, so that it could not be examined in the usual manner by the encryption research community. It used an bit key and a symmetric cipher algorithm, similar to DES.

What is fascinating about this proposal, at least in retrospect, is that it was proposed publicly. Again, maybe it was a simpler time. Or maybe the NSA thought that the logic of their argument would carry the day. Essentially, the proposal made the point that: It will be just like wire tapping, but now online! This will allow us to essentially do the same thing. The logic of the argument certainly convinced the Clinton administration, which, in February , announced support for the clipper chip initiative.

And some security and law enforcement experts concurred, clearly fearing that technology was about to bring on a surveillance apocalypse. Here is the New York Times from June of If something like Clipper is not implemented, writes Dorothy E. In a world threatened by international organized crime, terrorism and rogue governments, this would be folly. Again, from that same New York Times piece:.

Every company, every citizen now had routine access to the sorts of cryptographic technology that not many years ago ranked alongside the atom bomb as a source of power. Maybe even impossible to decipher! And so… how civil of them! They seemed to be taking their greatest problem to the public and asking them… voluntarily… in the interests of national security… to go along with solving it for them. We have to get permission to utilize that 3rd key held in escrow!

The clipper chip quickly attracted a firestorm of controversy. For one thing, industry was wary. The whole thing certainly seemed heavy handed. The government wanted the right to insert something into every product that private industry made. That feels icky even today, but in if felt downright draconian. Participation in the clipper chip hardware program was supposed to be voluntary, but private enterprise saw Big Brother everywhere. But the opposition was also a product of the times.

This was Ruby Ridge. And thus, Republicans along with some Democrats came out strongly against the clipper chip initiative. The Clinton administration would like the Federal government to have the capability to read any international or domestic computer communications. The FBI wants access to decode, digest, and discuss financial transactions, personal e-mail, and proprietary information sent abroad — all in the name of national security.

To accomplish this, President Clinton would like government agencies to have the keys for decoding all exported U. Not only would Big Brother be looming over the shoulders of international cyber-surfers, but the administration threatens to render our state-of-the-art computer software engineers obsolete and unemployed. The nascent digital rights movement was quick to seize upon the clipper chip as a call to arms.

A group called the Cypherpunks met regularly in silicon valley to devise code that would preemptively break the clipper chip, or else, render it useless. The hope was that if the public adopted enough of these packages, the clipper chip could be crippled out of the gate.

Over the course of the young Internet community rose as one to defeat what they saw as a threat to their lifestyle. The long promised cyberpunk future was now. The Anarchist Cookbook was freely traded on Usenet groups alongside pornography and cracked copies of Doom.

It helped that industry leaders from Apple to Netscape came out against the proposal. It also helped that a young computer scientist at Bell Labs figured out the clipper chip was easily spoofed. The chip proposal was never formally dropped the Clinton administration made several revised attempts to launch the proposal in modified formats so much as it was quietly forgotten. Again, I think it was a combination of factors unique to the time period that helped sink the clipper chip.

And at the same time, the administration was already beginning to see that, indeed, Silicon Valley-led technological innovation could and would bring about an unprecedented era of creativity and prosperity. There was a bit of not wanting to look a gift horse in the mouth about the whole thing.

If the geeks said this policy was bad for technology development overall, the pols were willing to take their word for it. But we rejected this polite proposal, and so we have to assume that the NSA simply resolved to stop asking for permission. This is, I think, the key insight that looking back at the clipper chip debate gives us. A lot of us tend to think of the NSA as this all-powerful, voracious and rapacious entity seeking to monitor and possibly control our lives.

From their perspective, complete disaster is always right around the corner, and it has been since the early 90s. The clipper chip was just their first gambit, but the goal has always been the same: The law is such that you have no choice but to cooperate.

These were all precisely the arguments that scuttled the clipper chip. The NSA was simply given the blank check to create the apparatus they always wanted. And steps one through seven of that apparatus were about making sure that impenetrable cryptology would forever be kneecapped.

Those were ALL the authorized surveillance operations in the entire country. And that was back in the technologically simple days of wiretapping. That the backdoors and the exploits are there. That truly secure encryption is a mirage just beyond us on the horizon. If anything cough… Zuckerberg… cough they view privacy as a weird anachronism.

Certainly, there is still a movement to preserve our digital civil rights. And some corporations seem to be just as offended by governmental overreach as we are. Bulletproof encryption is always possible, we just need to rebuild an infrastructure that makes it workable.

And they know that either one of two outcomes are possible: I started this piece with a quote from John Ashcroft, who was a member of the administration that presided over the implementation of the current NSA surveillance regime. And yet, some of you might remember the story about how, from a hospital bed, Ashcroft himself refused to authorize some specific surveillance measures he felt were a bridge too far.

The infamous showdown took place in March , while Ashcroft was recovering from illness in a hospital bed. Comey concluded that it was illegal. In the confrontation that ensued, Ashcroft supported Comey both formally because Comey was legally the attorney general while Ashcroft was incapacitated and on the legal substance.

/p>

NSA - RationalWiki

Encryption means unbreakable codes. But breaking into digitally encrypted communications is orders of magnitude harder. Especially in the era of powerful computers, once you put information into digital form, the math is such that there is a very real possibility that you will never break the code. Clearly, the NSA was one of of those aware of this looming problem, and they were worried they might soon be unable to do their job.

So they decided to get ahead of the issue, before they were locked out of the coming wave of digital communications. If the government could prove for example, via a traditional warrant, okayed by a judge that the communication in question needed to be un-encrypted for the purposes of law enforcement, then the third key could be used to unlock everything. But clearly, the scheme could be implemented in the manufacture of computers, fax machines, pagers and the like further down the road.

The algorithm was initially classified as SECRET, so that it could not be examined in the usual manner by the encryption research community. It used an bit key and a symmetric cipher algorithm, similar to DES. What is fascinating about this proposal, at least in retrospect, is that it was proposed publicly. Again, maybe it was a simpler time. Or maybe the NSA thought that the logic of their argument would carry the day.

Essentially, the proposal made the point that: It will be just like wire tapping, but now online! This will allow us to essentially do the same thing.

The logic of the argument certainly convinced the Clinton administration, which, in February , announced support for the clipper chip initiative. And some security and law enforcement experts concurred, clearly fearing that technology was about to bring on a surveillance apocalypse. Here is the New York Times from June of If something like Clipper is not implemented, writes Dorothy E. In a world threatened by international organized crime, terrorism and rogue governments, this would be folly.

Again, from that same New York Times piece:. Every company, every citizen now had routine access to the sorts of cryptographic technology that not many years ago ranked alongside the atom bomb as a source of power.

Maybe even impossible to decipher! And so… how civil of them! They seemed to be taking their greatest problem to the public and asking them… voluntarily… in the interests of national security… to go along with solving it for them.

We have to get permission to utilize that 3rd key held in escrow! The clipper chip quickly attracted a firestorm of controversy. For one thing, industry was wary. The whole thing certainly seemed heavy handed. The government wanted the right to insert something into every product that private industry made. That feels icky even today, but in if felt downright draconian. Participation in the clipper chip hardware program was supposed to be voluntary, but private enterprise saw Big Brother everywhere.

But the opposition was also a product of the times. This was Ruby Ridge. And thus, Republicans along with some Democrats came out strongly against the clipper chip initiative.

The Clinton administration would like the Federal government to have the capability to read any international or domestic computer communications. The FBI wants access to decode, digest, and discuss financial transactions, personal e-mail, and proprietary information sent abroad — all in the name of national security.

To accomplish this, President Clinton would like government agencies to have the keys for decoding all exported U. Then-Senators John Ashcroft and John Kerry were opponents of the Clipper chip proposal, arguing in favor of the individual's right to encrypt messages and export encryption software.

The release and development of several strong cryptographic software packages such as Nautilus , PGP [6] and PGPfone was in response to the government push for the Clipper chip. The thinking was that if strong cryptography was freely available on the internet as an alternative, the government would be unable to stop its use.

To prevent the software that transmitted the message from tampering with the LEAF, a bit hash was included. The Clipper chip would not decode messages with an invalid hash; however, the bit hash was too short to provide meaningful security. A brute-force attack would quickly produce another LEAF value that would give the same hash but not yield the correct keys after the escrow attempt. This would allow the Clipper chip to be used as an encryption device, while disabling the key escrow capability.

The Clipper chip was not embraced by consumers or manufacturers and the chip itself was no longer relevant by These attempts were largely made moot by the widespread use of strong cryptographic technologies, such as PGP , which were not under the control of the U. However, strongly encrypted voice channels are still not the predominant mode for current cell phone communications. Such apps usually communicate over secure Internet pathways e.

ZRTP instead of through phone voice data networks. Following the Snowden disclosures from , Apple and Google announced that they would lock down all data stored on their smartphones with encryption, in such a way that Apple and Google themselves could not break the encryption even if ordered to do so with a warrant.

The majority of the NSA is privatized, with contractors like the firm Booz Allen Hamilton doing quite a bit of the dirty work and being unaccountable to the democratic process. Conspiracy theorists and other people have long speculated that the NSA has been spying on Americans and others over a long period of time. Unfortunately for all of us, they were proven right in when news about the PRISM project which collects information from most social media sources and also wiretaps millions of phones, especially from Verizon was leaked by The Guardian , through information provided by Edward Snowden , a whistleblower and former NSA contractor employee.

Fighting pseudoscience isn't free. How this specifically stops terrorism is another debate in itself. So they're half right. Nonetheless, some also believe that they somehow have a full backup of everyone's hard drive, an absurdity on its own- or a sign that people don't know how computer technology works. This article is a stub. You can help RationalWiki by expanding it.

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