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President Barack Obama , during a visit to Germany, stated that the NSA's data gathering practices constitute "a circumscribed, narrow system directed at us being able to protect our people. The slide presentation stated that much of the world's electronic communications pass through the U. FAA Operations, and map.

Tasking, Points to Remember. Wikimedia Commons keeps copies of the leaked PowerPoint slides here: PRISM surveillance program along with other associated documents. Bush Administration but was widely criticized and challenged as illegal, because it did not include warrants obtained from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. In the act was renewed by Congress under President Obama for an additional five years, through December According to this report, PRISM is only used to collect internet communications, not telephone conversations.

These internet communications are not collected in bulk, but in a targeted way: Under this directive, the provider is legally obliged to hand over to DITU all communications to or from the selectors provided by the government. Internal NSA presentation slides included in the various media disclosures show that the NSA could unilaterally access data and perform "extensive, in-depth surveillance on live communications and stored information" with examples including email, video and voice chat, videos, photos, voice-over-IP chats such as Skype , file transfers, and social networking details.

According to The Washington Post , the intelligence analysts search PRISM data using terms intended to identify suspicious communications of targets whom the analysts suspect with at least 51 percent confidence to not be U.

Also according to The Guardian's Glenn Greenwald even low-level NSA analysts are allowed to search and listen to the communications of Americans and other people without court approval and supervision. Greenwald said low level Analysts can, via systems like PRISM, "listen to whatever emails they want, whatever telephone calls, browsing histories, Microsoft Word documents.

He added that the NSA databank, with its years of collected communications, allows analysts to search that database and listen "to the calls or read the emails of everything that the NSA has stored, or look at the browsing histories or Google search terms that you've entered, and it also alerts them to any further activity that people connected to that email address or that IP address do in the future.

Shortly after publication of the reports by The Guardian and The Washington Post , the United States Director of National Intelligence , James Clapper , on June 7, released a statement confirming that for nearly six years the government of the United States had been using large Internet services companies such as Facebook to collect information on foreigners outside the United States as a defense against national security threats.

They contain numerous inaccuracies. It cannot be used to intentionally target any U. On June 7, U. President Barack Obama , referring to the PRISM program [ citation needed ] and the NSA's telephone calls logging program, said, "What you've got is two programs that were originally authorized by Congress, have been repeatedly authorized by Congress.

Bipartisan majorities have approved them. Congress is continually briefed on how these are conducted. There are a whole range of safeguards involved. And federal judges are overseeing the entire program throughout.

You know, we're going to have to make some choices as a society. On June 8, , Director of National Intelligence Clapper made an additional public statement about PRISM and released a fact sheet providing further information about the program, which he described as "an internal government computer system used to facilitate the government's statutorily authorized collection of foreign intelligence information from electronic communication service providers under court supervision, as authorized by Section of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA 50 U.

All such information is obtained with FISA Court approval and with the knowledge of the provider based upon a written directive from the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence , subsequently criticized the fact sheet as being inaccurate. The fact sheet was withdrawn from the NSA's website around June On June 18, NSA Director Alexander said in an open hearing before the House Intelligence Committee of Congress that communications surveillance had helped prevent more than 50 potential terrorist attacks worldwide at least 10 of them involving terrorism suspects or targets in the United States between and , and that the PRISM web traffic surveillance program contributed in over 90 percent of those cases.

In contrast to their swift and forceful reactions the previous day to allegations that the government had been conducting surveillance of United States citizens' telephone records, Congressional leaders initially had little to say about the PRISM program the day after leaked information about the program was published. Several lawmakers declined to discuss PRISM, citing its top-secret classification, [65] and others said that they had not been aware of the program.

Following these statements some lawmakers from both parties warned national security officials during a hearing before the House Judiciary Committee that they must change their use of sweeping National Security Agency surveillance programs or face losing the provisions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that have allowed for the agency's mass collection of telephone metadata.

Otherwise, in two and a half years, you're not going to have it anymore. Leaks of classified documents pointed to the role of a special court in enabling the government's secret surveillance programs, but members of the court maintained they were not collaborating with the executive branch.

Congress pressed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to release declassified versions of its secret ruling, the court dismissed those requests arguing that the decisions can't be declassified because they contain classified information.

There is a rigorous review process of applications submitted by the executive branch, spearheaded initially by five judicial branch lawyers who are national security experts, and then by the judges, to ensure that the court's authorizations comport with what the applicable statutes authorize.

These statistics do not reflect the fact that many applications are altered to prior or final submission or even withheld from final submission entirely, often after an indication that a judge would not approve them. Polli had publicly stated in that he had received requests from US intelligence agencies to do things that would be in violation of Austrian law, which Polli refused to allow. The Australian government has said it will investigate the impact of the PRISM program and the use of the Pine Gap surveillance facility on the privacy of Australian citizens.

Brazil 's president at the time, Dilma Rousseff , responded to Snowden's reports that the NSA spied on her phone calls and emails by cancelling a planned October state visit to the United States, demanding an official apology, which by October 20, , hadn't come. On 20 October a committee at the European Parliament backed a measure that, if it is enacted, would require American companies to seek clearance from European officials before complying with United States warrants seeking private data.

The legislation has been under consideration for two years. The vote is part of efforts in Europe to shield citizens from online surveillance in the wake of revelations about a far-reaching spying program by the U. Paris prosecutors had opened preliminary inquiries into the NSA program in July, but Fabius said, "… obviously we need to go further" and "we must quickly assure that these practices aren't repeated.

After finding out about the PRISM program, the Mexican Government has started constructing its own spying program to spy on its own citizens. But they have all the partners doing it for them and then they share all the information. At a meeting of European Union leaders held the week of 21 October , Mariano Rajoy , Spain's prime minister, said that "spying activities aren't proper among partner countries and allies". On 28 October the Spanish government summoned the American ambassador, James Costos , to address allegations that the U.

They found in each case a warrant for interception was in place in accordance with the legal safeguards contained in UK law. In August , The Guardian newspaper's offices were visited by agents from GCHQ, who ordered and supervised the destruction of the hard drives containing information acquired from Snowden.

Corporate executives of several companies identified in the leaked documents told The Guardian that they had no knowledge of the PRISM program in particular and also denied making information available to the government on the scale alleged by news reports. In response to the technology companies' denials of the NSA being able to directly access the companies' servers, The New York Times reported that sources had stated the NSA was gathering the surveillance data from the companies using other technical means in response to court orders for specific sets of data.

In another classified report obtained by The Post, the arrangement is described as allowing 'collection managers [to send] content tasking instructions directly to equipment installed at company-controlled locations,' rather than directly to company servers. I wouldn't be surprised if they were subject to a gag order. The New York Times reported on June 7, , that "Twitter declined to make it easier for the government.

But other companies were more compliant, according to people briefed on the negotiations. While providing data in response to a legitimate FISA request approved by the FISA Court is a legal requirement, modifying systems to make it easier for the government to collect the data is not. This is why Twitter could legally decline to provide an enhanced mechanism for data transmission.

In response to the publicity surrounding media reports of data-sharing, several companies requested permission to reveal more public information about the nature and scope of information provided in response to National Security requests. On June 14, , Facebook reported that the U. That same day, Microsoft reported that for the same period, it received "between 6, and 7, criminal and national security warrants, subpoenas and orders affecting between 31, and 32, consumer accounts from U.

Google issued a statement criticizing the requirement that data be reported in aggregated form, stating that lumping national security requests with criminal request data would be "a step backwards" from its previous, more detailed practices on its website's transparency report.

The company said that it would continue to seek government permission to publish the number and extent of FISA requests. Cisco Systems saw a huge drop in export sales because of fears that the National Security Agency could be using backdoors in its products. On September 12, , Yahoo! The New York Times editorial board charged that the Obama administration "has now lost all credibility on this issue," [] and lamented that "for years, members of Congress ignored evidence that domestic intelligence-gathering had grown beyond their control, and, even now, few seem disturbed to learn that every detail about the public's calling and texting habits now reside in a N.

James Robertson , a former federal district judge based in Washington who served on the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act court for three years between and and who ruled against the Bush administration in the landmark Hamdan v.

Rumsfeld case, said FISA court is independent but flawed because only the government's side is represented effectively in its deliberations. He suggested creating an advocate with security clearance who would argue against government filings. I don't think that is a judicial function. Daly observed that, "The problem is not just what the National Security Agency is gathering at the risk of our privacy but what it is apparently unable to monitor at the risk of our safety.

Ron Paul , a former Republican member of Congress and prominent libertarian , thanked Snowden and Greenwald and denounced the mass surveillance as unhelpful and damaging, urging instead more transparency in U. New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman defended limited government surveillance programs intended to protect the American people from terrorist acts:.

That is why I'll reluctantly, very reluctantly, trade off the government using data mining to look for suspicious patterns in phone numbers called and e-mail addresses—and then have to go to a judge to get a warrant to actually look at the content under guidelines set by Congress—to prevent a day where, out of fear, we give government a license to look at anyone, any e-mail, any phone call, anywhere, anytime.

Political commentator David Brooks similarly cautioned that government data surveillance programs are a necessary evil: Conservative commentator Charles Krauthammer worried less about the legality of PRISM and other NSA surveillance tools than about the potential for their abuse without more stringent oversight. We need a toughening of both congressional oversight and judicial review, perhaps even some independent outside scrutiny.

Plus periodic legislative revision—say, reauthorization every couple of years—in light of the efficacy of the safeguards and the nature of the external threat. The object is not to abolish these vital programs.

It's to fix them. In a blog post, David Simon , the creator of The Wire , compared the NSA's programs, including PRISM, to a s effort by the City of Baltimore to add dialed number recorders to all pay phones to know which individuals were being called by the callers; [] the city believed that drug traffickers were using pay phones and pagers, and a municipal judge allowed the city to place the recorders.

The placement of the dialers formed the basis of the show's first season. Simon argued that the media attention regarding the NSA programs is a "faux scandal.

Political theorist , and frequent critic of U. But governments will use whatever technology is available to them to combat their primary enemy — which is their own population. Sentiment around the world was that of general displeasure upon learning the extent of world communication data mining. Some national leaders spoke against the NSA and some spoke against their own national surveillance.

One national minister had scathing comments on the National Security Agency's data-mining program, citing Benjamin Franklin: After Carr replied that there was a legal framework to protect Australians but that the government would not comment on intelligence matters, Xenophon argued that this was not a specific answer to his question.

Taliban spokesperson Zabiullah Mujahid said, "We knew about their past efforts to trace our system. We have used our technical resources to foil their efforts and have been able to stop them from succeeding so far. Reactions of internet users in China were mixed between viewing a loss of freedom worldwide and seeing state surveillance coming out of secrecy. The story broke just before U.

To me, it's abusively using government powers to interfere in individuals' privacy. This is an important moment for international society to reconsider and protect individual rights.

This is the nature of secret government organizations.

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Inside the NSA's War on Internet Security - SPIEGEL ONLINE

It means that an employee could be discharged and disgraced on the basis of anonymous allegations without the slightest opportunity to defend himself. When the agency was first established, its headquarters and cryptographic center were in the Naval Security Station in Washington, D. Army 's cryptographic operations. Construction of additional buildings began after the agency occupied buildings at Ft. Meade in the late s, which they soon outgrew.

NSA workers referred to the building as the "Headquarters Building" and since the NSA management occupied the top floor, workers used "Ninth Floor" to refer to their leaders. Meade , Maryland , although it is separate from other compounds and agencies that are based within this same military installation. The Eastbound exit from the Parkway heading toward Baltimore is open to the public and provides employee access to its main campus and public access to the National Cryptology Museum.

NSA is the largest employer in the state of Maryland, and two-thirds of its personnel work at Ft. The main NSA headquarters and operations building is what James Bamford , author of Body of Secrets , describes as "a modern boxy structure" that appears similar to "any stylish office building.

Capitol "could easily fit inside it four times over. The facility has over watchposts, [] one of them being the visitor control center, a two-story area that serves as the entrance.

The OPS2A building, the tallest building in the NSA complex and the location of much of the agency's operations directorate, is accessible from the visitor center. Bamford described it as a "dark glass Rubik's Cube ". The name refers to the "red badge" which is worn by someone without a security clearance.

The NSA headquarters includes a cafeteria, a credit union, ticket counters for airlines and entertainment, a barbershop, and a bank. The employees at the NSA headquarters reside in various places in the Baltimore-Washington area , including Annapolis , Baltimore, and Columbia in Maryland and the District of Columbia, including the Georgetown community.

Following a major power outage in , in and in follow-ups through , The Baltimore Sun reported that the NSA was at risk of electrical overload because of insufficient internal electrical infrastructure at Fort Meade to support the amount of equipment being installed. This problem was apparently recognized in the s but not made a priority, and "now the agency's ability to keep its operations going is threatened.

Meade in , and expected that an increase of 10 to 15 megawatts would be needed later that year. Meade was Maryland's largest consumer of power. NSA held a groundbreaking ceremony at Ft. NCSC was responsible for computer security throughout the federal government. As of , NSA collected intelligence from four geostationary satellites. NSA had installations in several U. In , to protect its assets and access more electricity, NSA sought to decentralize and expand its existing facilities in Ft.

Meade and Menwith Hill, [] the latter expansion expected to be completed by The Yakima Herald-Republic cited Bamford, saying that many of NSA's bases for its Echelon program were a legacy system , using outdated, s technology. A NSA report indicates that the ECC is responsible for the "largest analysis and productivity in Europe" and focuses on various priorities, including Africa, Europe, the Middle East and counterterrorism operations.

Thailand is a "3rd party partner" of the NSA along with nine other nations. It presumably eavesdrops on foreign embassies, governmental communications, and other targets of opportunity. Its mission was to eavesdrop on the radio traffic of Chinese army and air force units in southern China, especially in and around the city of Kunming in Yunnan Province. Back in the late s the base consisted only of a small CDAA antenna array that was remote-controlled via satellite from the NSA listening post at Kunia, Hawaii , and a small force of civilian contractors from Bendix Field Engineering Corp.

The base apparently fell into disrepair in the s as China and Vietnam became more friendly towards the US, and by archived satellite imagery showed that the PUSHER CDAA antenna had been torn down, perhaps indicating that the base had been closed. It is likely that the NSA presence at Khon Kaen is relatively small, and that most of the work is done by civilian contractors. NSA has been involved in debates about public policy, both indirectly as a behind-the-scenes adviser to other departments, and directly during and after Vice Admiral Bobby Ray Inman 's directorship.

NSA was a major player in the debates of the s regarding the export of cryptography in the United States. Restrictions on export were reduced but not eliminated in Its secure government communications work has involved the NSA in numerous technology areas, including the design of specialized communications hardware and software, production of dedicated semiconductors at the Ft. Meade chip fabrication plant , and advanced cryptography research.

For 50 years, NSA designed and built most of its computer equipment in-house, but from the s until about when the U. Congress curtailed the practice , the agency contracted with the private sector in the fields of research and equipment. NSA was embroiled in some minor controversy concerning its involvement in the creation of the Data Encryption Standard DES , a standard and public block cipher algorithm used by the U.

There was suspicion that these changes had weakened the algorithm sufficiently to enable the agency to eavesdrop if required, including speculation that a critical component—the so-called S-boxes —had been altered to insert a " backdoor " and that the reduction in key length might have made it feasible for NSA to discover DES keys using massive computing power.

It has since been observed that the S-boxes in DES are particularly resilient against differential cryptanalysis , a technique which was not publicly discovered until the late s but known to the IBM DES team. This small modification was suggested by NSA two years later, with no justification other than the fact that it provides additional security. An attack for SHA-0 that does not apply to the revised algorithm was indeed found between and by academic cryptographers.

Because of weaknesses and key length restrictions in SHA-1, NIST deprecates its use for digital signatures , and approves only the newer SHA-2 algorithms for such applications from on. A new hash standard, SHA-3 , has recently been selected through the competition concluded October 2, with the selection of Keccak as the algorithm. The process to select SHA-3 was similar to the one held in choosing the AES, but some doubts have been cast over it, [] [] since fundamental modifications have been made to Keccak in order to turn it into a standard.

National Institute of Standards and Technology 's guidelines. This led to speculation of a backdoor which would allow NSA access to data encrypted by systems using that pseudo random number generator.

This is now deemed to be plausible based on the fact that output of next iterations of PRNG can provably be determined if relation between two internal elliptic curve points is known. Because of concerns that widespread use of strong cryptography would hamper government use of wiretaps , NSA proposed the concept of key escrow in and introduced the Clipper chip that would offer stronger protection than DES but would allow access to encrypted data by authorized law enforcement officials.

NSA has the ability to file for a patent from the U. Patent and Trademark Office under gag order. Unlike normal patents, these are not revealed to the public and do not expire. However, if the Patent Office receives an application for an identical patent from a third party, they will reveal NSA's patent and officially grant it to NSA for the full term on that date.

One of NSA's published patents describes a method of geographically locating an individual computer site in an Internet-like network, based on the latency of multiple network connections. The heraldic insignia of NSA consists of an eagle inside a circle, grasping a key in its talons. Carter USA ordered the creation of a device to represent the agency.

Crews associated with NSA missions have been involved in a number of dangerous and deadly situations. A tradition of declassifying the stories of the fallen was begun in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Armed Forces Security Agency. Army , Director George C. Barnes , Deputy Director. Map of global NSA data collection. Watergate scandal and Church Committee. Global surveillance disclosures —present. Mass surveillance in the United States.

NSA warrantless surveillance — Intercepted packages are opened carefully by NSA employees. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved July 6, NSA has evolved from a staff of approximately 7, military and civilian employees housed in in a vacated school in Arlington, VA, into a workforce of more than 30, demographically diverse men and women located at NSA headquarters in Ft. Meade, MD, in four national Cryptologic Centers, and at sites throughout the world. Retrieved July 22, Its budget has roughly doubled.

Then NSA wants you. Retrieved July 1, Data Surveillance with Global Implications". Retrieved August 29, Spending on Intelligence Agencies". The New York Times.

Retrieved September 14, Intelligence Agencies to Track Intrusions". Retrieved February 9, US bugged EU offices. NSA leaker Snowden claimed U. Archived from the original on January 25, Hanssen left signs that he told Russia where top-secret overseas eavesdropping devices are placed, officials say". Archived from the original on April 17, A Call for Canadian Network Sovereignty".

Retrieved 23 February Retrieved November 22, Retrieved May 26, The American black chamber. Retrieved November 9, Spies, wiretaps, and secret operations: An encyclopedia of American espionage. Retrieved August 11, Archived from the original PDF on September 18, Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original PDF on August 21, A History of U. Communications Security; the David G. Retrieved March 14, Retrieved August 2, Retrieved June 28, Archived from the original PDF on May 21, Hersh February 22, Retrieved January 12, The Los Angeles Times.

He was, by implication, revealing that NSA had broken the Libyan code. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved June 11, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Journeys of a Mathematician. Deja vu all over again? Retrieved 12 April Tribune Company Chicago, IL. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved March 7, The privacy protections offered by ThinThread were also abandoned in the post—September 11 push by the president for a faster response to terrorism. Retrieved September 11, Retrieved July 4, Sanger of The New York Times ".

Retrieved October 9, Archived from the original PDF on January 17, Archived from the original on May 2, Retrieved May 22, Center for Constitutional Rights. Retrieved June 15, Retrieved December 30, The Wall Street Journal Online. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved April 16, Retrieved August 12, Retrieved April 15, Center for Independent Media.

Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved April 19, Retrieved July 19, NSA collecting phone records of millions of Americans daily". Retrieved June 6, Retrieved August 13, Retrieved February 25, Retrieved December 7, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved September 23, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved September 16, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved August 14, Retrieved November 28, Retrieved July 7, Ability to police U.

NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds Archived at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 21, District Court for the District of Columbia. Reproduced on The Guardian website. Retrieved February 3, Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved December 28, Retrieved September 27, Retrieved September 30, The Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.

Archived from the original on October 23, Archived from the original on September 18, Retrieved June 30, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on June 16, The Ties That Bind: New Statesman via duncancampbell. Retrieved June 19, Retrieved June 7, Retrieved May 6, Retrieved June 1, Retrieved July 15, Collect it all, tag it, store it. And whatever it is you want, you go searching for it.

The actual story that matters is not hard to see: Retrieved July 16, Retrieved October 18, Der Spiegel in German. Retrieved June 29, Retrieved August 25, The New York Times Bits blog.

Jeff Larson CS1 maint: Ryge July 3, Archived from the original on Decrypting the Fourth Amendment: Boston College Law Review. Bush's Influence Over Bureaucracy and Policy. Bush Made Retroactive N. Internet companies in broad secret program". Retrieved September 7, Retrieved October 7, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on June 15, National Security Agency plans major reorganization.

The Washington Post , Feb Retrieved April 13, Director of National Intelligence. Archived from the original PDF on May 24, Archived from the original PDF on August 24, Archived from the original PDF on August 12, Approach and Examples" PDF. Davis March 12, Statement for the Record Speech. Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved November 24, Leak Puts Focus on System Administrators". Retrieved June 25, The Story of Cryptology. Retrieved June 17, Retrieved July 5, Retrieved March 1, Analysts have gone from being polygraphed once every five years to once every quarter.

United States Marine Corps. Who's reading your emails? Updated August 27, Archived from the original PDF on July 13, Retrieved June 10, Retrieved June 12, With more than sixty-eight acres of floor space,[ It is here that clearances are checked and visitor badges are issued.

Shaped like a dark glass Rubik's Cube, the building houses much of NSA's Operations Directorate, which is responsible for processing the ocean of intercepts and prying open the complex cipher systems.

Its needs are projected to grow by 10 to 15 megawatt-hours by next fall. Retrieved February 26, Retrieved October 3, Archived from the original PDF on January 25, Retrieved June 13, Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved January 6, The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved June 9, Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on July 2, Retrieved July 11, NSA is 'in bed with the Germans ' ". Retrieved July 8, They come as senior intelligence officials testify to the Senate judiciary committee on Wednesday, releasing classified documents in response to the Guardian's earlier stories on bulk collection of phone records and Fisa surveillance court oversight.

The files shed light on one of Snowden's most controversial statements, made in his first video interview published by the Guardian on June US officials vehemently denied this specific claim. Mike Rogers, the Republican chairman of the House intelligence committee, said of Snowden's assertion: It's impossible for him to do what he was saying he could do.

But training materials for XKeyscore detail how analysts can use it and other systems to mine enormous agency databases by filling in a simple on-screen form giving only a broad justification for the search. The request is not reviewed by a court or any NSA personnel before it is processed. One presentation claims the program covers "nearly everything a typical user does on the internet", including the content of emails, websites visited and searches, as well as their metadata. Analysts can also use XKeyscore and other NSA systems to obtain ongoing "real-time" interception of an individual's internet activity.

Under US law, the NSA is required to obtain an individualized Fisa warrant only if the target of their surveillance is a 'US person', though no such warrant is required for intercepting the communications of Americans with foreign targets. But XKeyscore provides the technological capability, if not the legal authority, to target even US persons for extensive electronic surveillance without a warrant provided that some identifying information, such as their email or IP address, is known to the analyst.

One training slide illustrates the digital activity constantly being collected by XKeyscore and the analyst's ability to query the databases at any time. The purpose of XKeyscore is to allow analysts to search the metadata as well as the content of emails and other internet activity, such as browser history, even when there is no known email account a "selector" in NSA parlance associated with the individual being targeted.

Analysts can also search by name, telephone number, IP address, keywords, the language in which the internet activity was conducted or the type of browser used.

One document notes that this is because "strong selection [search by email address] itself gives us only a very limited capability" because "a large amount of time spent on the web is performing actions that are anonymous.

The NSA documents assert that by , terrorists had been captured using intelligence from XKeyscore. Analysts are warned that searching the full database for content will yield too many results to sift through.

Instead they are advised to use the metadata also stored in the databases to narrow down what to review. A slide entitled "plug-ins" in a December document describes the various fields of information that can be searched. It includes "every email address seen in a session by both username and domain", "every phone number seen in a session eg address book entries or signature block " and user activity — "the webmail and chat activity to include username, buddylist, machine specific cookies etc".

In a second Guardian interview in June, Snowden elaborated on his statement about being able to read any individual's email if he had their email address. He said the claim was based in part on the email search capabilities of XKeyscore, which Snowden says he was authorized to use while working as a Booz Allen contractor for the NSA. One top-secret document describes how the program "searches within bodies of emails, webpages and documents", including the "To, From, CC, BCC lines" and the 'Contact Us' pages on websites".

To search for emails, an analyst using XKS enters the individual's email address into a simple online search form, along with the "justification" for the search and the time period for which the emails are sought. The analyst then selects which of those returned emails they want to read by opening them in NSA reading software. The system is similar to the way in which NSA analysts generally can intercept the communications of anyone they select, including, as one NSA document put it, "communications that transit the United States and communications that terminate in the United States".

One document, a top secret guide describing the training received by NSA analysts for general surveillance under the Fisa Amendments Act of , explains that analysts can begin surveillance on anyone by clicking a few simple pull-down menus designed to provide both legal and targeting justifications. Once options on the pull-down menus are selected, their target is marked for electronic surveillance and the analyst is able to review the content of their communications:.

Beyond emails, the XKeyscore system allows analysts to monitor a virtually unlimited array of other internet activities, including those within social media. An analyst can monitor such Facebook chats by entering the Facebook user name and a date range into a simple search screen. Analysts can search for internet browsing activities using a wide range of information, including search terms entered by the user or the websites viewed.

As one slide indicates, the ability to search HTTP activity by keyword permits the analyst access to what the NSA calls "nearly everything a typical user does on the internet".

Has the NSA been collecting all Americans' phone records, what order that directed a Verizon subsidiary to turn over phone metadata—the time and as phone numbers and location data—to the NSA "on an ongoing daily. Inside its own country, the N.S.A. needs a warrant to wiretap citizens. But not It has become something of a joke among my friends in Brazil to. #friends#benefits#no strings#booty calls#no complications. by pandora September 09, Get the mug. Get a NSA FWB mug for your boyfriend Vivek.