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Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and resulted in a precipitous population decline from disease, genocide and starvation. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial.

Whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" referring to , the peak year for Gold Rush immigration. Of the approximately , people who came to California during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail; forty-niners often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the gold rush attracted thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China.

Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about residents in to a boomtown of about 36, by Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. In a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by referendum vote, and the future state's interim first governor and legislature were chosen.

In September , California became a state. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning.

Although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service.

By , railroads were built from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's US dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few, though many who participated in the California Gold Rush earned little more than they had started with.

The Mexican—American War ended on February 3, , although California was a de facto American possession before that. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter , found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay: Rumors of the discovery of gold were confirmed in March by San Francisco newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan.

Brannan hurriedly set up a store to sell gold prospecting supplies, [6] and walked through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting "Gold!

Gold from the American River! On August 19, , the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. As Sutter had feared, his business plans were ruined after his workers left in search of gold, and squatters took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.

San Francisco had been a tiny settlement before the rush began. When residents learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and businesses, [10] but then boomed as merchants and new people arrived. The population of San Francisco increased quickly from about 1, [11] in to 25, full-time residents by In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," [14] there was no easy way to get to California; forty-niners faced hardship and often death on the way.

At first, most Argonauts , as they were also known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take five to eight months, [15] and cover approximately 18, nautical miles 33, kilometres. An alternative was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama , take canoes and mules for a week through the jungle, and then on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco. Many gold-seekers took the overland route across the continental United States, particularly along the California Trail.

Supply ships arrived in San Francisco with goods to supply the needs of the growing population. When hundreds of ships were abandoned after their crews deserted into go to the goldfields, many ships were converted to warehouses, stores, taverns, hotels, and one into a jail. Within a few years, there was an important but lesser-known surge of prospectors into far Northern California, specifically into present-day Siskiyou , Shasta and Trinity Counties.

Settlements of the Gold Rush era, such as Portuguese Flat on the Sacramento River , sprang into existence and then faded. The Gold Rush town of Weaverville on the Trinity River today retains the oldest continuously used Taoist temple in California, a legacy of Chinese miners who came.

While there are not many Gold Rush era ghost towns still in existence, the remains of the once-bustling town of Shasta have been preserved in a California State Historic Park in Northern California. Gold was also discovered in Southern California but on a much smaller scale.

The first discovery of gold, at Rancho San Francisco in the mountains north of present-day Los Angeles , had been in , six years before Marshall's discovery, while California was still part of Mexico. By , most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Faced with gold increasingly difficult to retrieve, Americans began to drive out foreigners to get at the most accessible gold that remained.

In addition, the huge numbers of newcomers were driving Native Americans out of their traditional hunting, fishing and food-gathering areas. To protect their homes and livelihood, some Native Americans responded by attacking the miners. This provoked counter-attacks on native villages. The Native Americans, out-gunned, were often slaughtered.

Novelist and poet Joaquin Miller vividly captured one such attack in his semi-autobiographical work, Life Amongst the Modocs. The first gold found in California was made on March 9, Francisco Lopez, a native California, was searching for stray horses. He stopped on the bank of a small creek in what later was known as Placerita Canyon, about 3 miles 4.

While the horses grazed, Lopez dug up some wild onions and found a small gold nugget in the roots among the onion bulbs. He looked further and found more gold. Lopez took the gold to authorities who confirmed its worth. Lopez and others began to search for other streambeds with gold deposits in the area. They found several in the northeastern section of the forest, within present-day Ventura County. In he found gold in San Feliciano Canyon near his first discovery. Mexican miners from Sonora worked the placer deposits until , when the Californios began to agitate for independence from Mexico, and the Bear Flag Revolt caused many Mexicans to leave California.

The first people to rush to the goldfields, beginning in the spring of , were the residents of California themselves—primarily agriculturally oriented Americans and Europeans living in Northern California , along with Native Americans and some Californios Spanish -speaking Californians.

Women and children of all ethnicities were often found panning next to the men. Some enterprising families set up boarding houses to accommodate the influx of men; in such cases, the women often brought in steady income while their husbands searched for gold. Word of the Gold Rush spread slowly at first. The earliest gold-seekers were people who lived near California or people who heard the news from ships on the fastest sailing routes from California.

The first large group of Americans to arrive were several thousand Oregonians who came down the Siskiyou Trail. Only a small number probably fewer than traveled overland from the United States that year.

A person could work for six months in the goldfields and find the equivalent of six years' wages back home. By the beginning of , word of the Gold Rush had spread around the world, and an overwhelming number of gold-seekers and merchants began to arrive from virtually every continent. The largest group of forty-niners in were Americans, arriving by the tens of thousands overland across the continent and along various sailing routes [38] the name "forty-niner" was derived from the year Many from the East Coast negotiated a crossing of the Appalachian Mountains , taking to riverboats in Pennsylvania , poling the keelboats to Missouri River wagon train assembly ports, and then travelling in a wagon train along the California Trail.

Australians [39] and New Zealanders picked up the news from ships carrying Hawaiian newspapers, and thousands, infected with "gold fever", boarded ships for California. Forty-niners came from Latin America, particularly from the Mexican mining districts near Sonora and Chile.

It is estimated that approximately 90, people arrived in California in —about half by land and half by sea. People from small villages in the hills near Genova, Italy were among the first to settle permanently in the Sierra Nevada foothills ; they brought with them traditional agricultural skills, developed to survive cold winters.

A number of immigrants were from China. Several hundred Chinese arrived in California in and , and in more than 20, landed in San Francisco. Chinese miners suffered enormously, enduring violent racism from white miners who aimed their frustrations at foreigners.

To this day, there has been no justice for known victims. There were also women in the Gold Rush. However, their numbers were small. Of the 40, people who arrived by ship in the San Francisco harbor in , only were women.

The reasons they came varied: While in California, women became widows quite frequently due to mining accidents , disease, or mining disputes of their husbands.

Life in the goldfields offered opportunities for women to break from their traditional work. Described as the "city of bachelors", the disproportionate number of men to women in San Francisco created an environment where homosexuality and gay culture flourished.

When the Gold Rush began, the California goldfields were peculiarly lawless places. With the signing of the treaty ending the war on February 2, , California became a possession of the United States, but it was not a formal " territory " and did not become a state until September 9, California existed in the unusual condition of a region under military control.

There was no civil legislature, executive or judicial body for the entire region. Lax enforcement of federal laws, such as the Fugitive Slave Act of , encouraged the arrival of free blacks and escaped slaves.

While the treaty ending the Mexican—American War obliged the United States to honor Mexican land grants, [67] almost all the goldfields were outside those grants. Instead, the goldfields were primarily on " public land ", meaning land formally owned by the United States government. The benefit to the forty-niners was that the gold was simply "free for the taking" at first. In the goldfields at the beginning, there was no private property, no licensing fees, and no taxes. Miners worked at a claim only long enough to determine its potential.

If a claim was deemed as low-value—as most were—miners would abandon the site in search for a better one. In the case where a claim was abandoned or not worked upon, other miners would "claim-jump" the land.

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Retrieved May 20, Retrieved August 8, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved March 5, The first mega-smash of the summer? Is Katy Perry's 'Teenage Dream' a delight or a nightmare?

Katy Perry, 'Teenage Dream ' ". Archived from the original on September 8, Archived from the original on September 19, A dozen-plus to watch for". Retrieved March 7, Retrieved June 23, Retrieved November 28, Eminem Tops Garth — Chart Watch". Retrieved June 30, Retrieved January 25, Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved May 23, Snoop Dogg — California Gurls song ".

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Retrieved October 28, Katy Perry — Mathew Cullen, dir". Archived from the original on May 10, Archived from the original on September 5, Retrieved June 18, Retrieved June 17, Katy Perry Avoids Catastrophe — Vulture". Justin Timberlake, Katy Perry, and Gov. Paterson help Amy Poehler kick off a new season". Retrieved February 25, Retrieved August 14, Retrieved February 1, Retrieved October 9, Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved June 3, The Sydney Morning Herald.

Retrieved October 10, Music video pays tribute to geeky gals and gamer girls". Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved April 26, Snoop Dogg — California Gurls". Snoop Dogg — California Gurls" in German. Snoop Dogg — California Gurls" in Dutch. Snoop Dogg — California Gurls" in French. Bulgarian Association of Music Producers. California Gurls" in Finnish. Polish Airplay Top Archived from the original on Australian Recording Industry Association.

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Federation Italian of Music Industry. Archived from the original on January 21, Retrieved August 23, Between and , the population of San Francisco increased from to , The Panama Railway , spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in One ill-fated journey, that of the S.

Central America , [] ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in , with approximately three tons of California gold aboard. The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. Native Americans, dependent on traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture, became the victims of starvation and disease, as gravel, silt and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations killed fish and destroyed habitats.

Later farming spread to supply the settlers' camps, taking more land away from the Native Americans. In some areas, systematic attacks against tribespeople in or near mining districts occurred. Various conflicts were fought between natives and settlers. After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track down the Indians, whom the men then attacked. Only three children survived the massacre that was against a different band of Wintu than the one that had killed Anderson.

Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between and and estimated that during this period at least 9, to 16, California Indians were killed by non-Indians, mostly occurring in more than massacres defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise". The state government, in support of miner activities funded and supported death squads , appropriating over 1 million dollars towards the funding and operation of the paramilitary organizations.

While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert. After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile.

The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world as well. Farmers in Chile , Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China. The increase in gold supply also created a monetary supply shock. Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush, in , the groundbreaking ceremony for the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held in Sacramento.

The line's completion, some six years later, financed in part with Gold Rush money, [] united California with the central and eastern United States. Travel that had taken weeks or even months could now be accomplished in days. California's name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world became known as the "California Dream.

Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation:. The old American Dream The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck. Overnight California gained the international reputation as the "golden state".

California farmers, [] oil drillers, [] movie makers, [] airplane builders , [] and "dot-com" entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush.

In addition, the standard route shield of state highways in California is in the shape of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see California Gold Rush film. Prospectors working California gold placer deposits in Crushing quartz ore prior to washing out gold. San Francisco Bay Area portal California portal. After , California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era. A Bibliography of Periodical Articles".

California State University, Stanislaus. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved January 23, Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved December 3, History of California, Volume History of California, — Rush for riches; gold fever and the making of California. Oakland, California, Berkeley and Los Angeles: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

The age of gold: Another route across Nicaragua was developed in ; it was not as popular as the Panama option. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved February 26, History of Siskiyou County, California. Life amongst the Modocs: Heyday Books; reprint edition January So Much to Be Done. Rooted in barbarous soil: The California Gold Rush.

Retrieved May 12, Retrieved October 22, Other estimates range from 70, to 90, arrivals during ibid. Archived from the original on May 13, African American Literature of the Gold Rush. Women in Early San Francisco". Retrieved March 7, They saw the elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush. Here, the rough-and-tumble saloons of the Gold Rush developed into dance halls, honky-tonks, and bawdy houses that provided a space for men to gamble, dance, and satisfy their sexual desires University of Oklahoma Press.

Mapping Region in Early American Writing, There were fewer than 1, U. The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, — Heyday Books, Berkeley, California.

Retrieved July 31, The letters were originally published in — by The Pioneer magazine. Congress finally legalized the practice in the " Chaffee laws " of and the "placer law" of See also John F. Burns, and Richard J. Orsi, eds; Taming the Elephant: Archived from the original on May 14, The term "ounces" used in this article to refer to gold typically refers to troy ounces. There are some historical uses where, because of the age of the use, the intention is ambiguous.

See Roman-era gold mines in Spain. Roman engineers built extensive aqueducts and reservoirs above gold-bearing areas, and released the stored water in a flood so as to remove over-burden and expose gold-bearing bedrock, a process known as hushing.

The bedrock was then attacked using fire and mechanical means, and volumes of water were used again to remove debris, and to process the resulting ore.

The gold recovered using these methods was used to finance the expansion of the Roman Empire. Hushing was also used in lead and tin mining in Northern Britain and Cornwall. There is, however, no evidence of the earlier use of hoses, nozzles and continuous jets of water in the manner developed in California during the Gold Rush. Retrieved February 19, Evidence from the California Gold Rush". Journal of Economic History. Duke University Press Books.

Lick's fortune was used to build Lick Observatory. Huntington , Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker , Sacramento area businessmen later known as the Big Four who financed the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad , and became very wealthy as a result. The social world of the California Gold Rush.

Other estimates are that there were 7,—13, non-Native Americans in California before January See Starr, Kevin , p. The Journal of Economic History. By , California had over flour mills, and was exporting wheat and flour around the world. Americans and the California dream: New York and Oxford: Central America information ; Final voyage of the S. Retrieved April 25, All hands and passengers were saved, along with the cargo of gold, but the ship was a total loss.

Archived from the original on March 12, Indian Country Today Media Network. Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved April 7, California Secretary of State.

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