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Democracy is but a specific political method; its institutions are formally nothing more than a system of balance; and in the end it is sufficient to adequately perceive the conditions for balance to correctly steer the apparatus. They set out to explain the nature of democracy with the help of one or just a few parameters. By doing this they expose themselves to the reproach of being insufficiently general or complex.

According to the systems thinking approach presented in the introduction, we may look at democracy - and likewise at federalism no. Various justifications for democracy may then be analysed for their systemic functions. To do that we shall use three main functions or bundles of functions: This same approach will be applied later to the functions of federalism no.

As the main emphasis of this monograph is laid on federalism, the latter part will be more extensive. It will also primarily be there where we consider the interrelationships of democratic and federalist ends. The emphasis is on the marshalling and processing of information by a system.

Looked at from this point of view the concept of learning capacity is of paramount importance. It is dependent on the structure of the flow of information, the information channels' capacity and the effectiveness of the mechanisms for steering and control. It is a decision center's learning capacity that determines its viability and its pathology.

Social systems can only survive if they are capable of social learning. Learning becomes pathological for instance through the coincidence of will and power; will being the desire not to learn and power the faculty of not having to learn. Thus, important decision makers will quite often learn but in a pathological way, i.

This approach will be further refined later for the analysing of the relevant functions of federalism no. Institutions providing for citizen access to decision-making force the ruling elite to be confronted with undesirable information even in democracies with authoritarian traits. This will not be the case in perfect autocracies or oligarchies. Such procedures are ballots, elections, political freedoms as for instance the right to the free expression of opinions, freedom of the press, petitions, the right to associate freely with one another, freedom of instruction , public hearings, etc.

The problem of information overload will be treated once again in connection with functions of federalism, no. Competition results in variety of arguments. In most countries the mechanism for such critical reflection is party competition in elections in small democracies, as for instance in Switzerland, direct competition of arguments in ballots is also possible. Elections which offer the chance of a change in the composition of the ruling majority are one of the answers to the age-old problem e.

This is a function which, if attributed to the separation of parliament and executive, has to-day become somewhat problematic in countries where there is for all practical purposes political identity of the parliamentary majority and the executive see also no. But a correct decision per se does not exist or, if it exists, it is not perceivable as such for everybody. There is only that which is reputed to be correct.

The basis for this reputation may be varied. One such basis is democracy. Because with the many each one of them owns a modicum of virtue and of insight. And if they assemble the many will be as one man with a multitude of feet, hands and sense-organs. The same will hold true for attitudes and insights, too. But already at the end of this never fully implemented state disintegrated again into its two component units. It appears that democratic procedure if it really can be called that produced but a relative or very provisional truth.

We are examining a decision-making process in an optimizing social system no. The rulers are able to maintain their position as long as they also take into account the demands of others.

Therefore, established elites in such an output-oriented model always fear the entrance of competing new elites which represent heretofore neglected group interests. Democracy's problems in this field have to do with the way opinions and demands are generated.

Convictions do not come from nowhere. They are arrived at by personal experience, interests and environmental influences. The main problem, therefore, is manipulation of opinions. This group, then, will not be subjected to arguments about the relationships between everyday problems and political decisions. One of the tendencies of democracy, which Plato and other anti-democrats warned against a long time ago, was the danger that rhetoric would displace or at least overshadow epistemology; that is, the temptation to allow the problem of persuasion to overshadow the problem of knowledge.

This may still be acceptable for elections because they are primarily votes of confidence, despite all propaganda efforts. But with the kinds of ballots which are common in Switzerland and the United States, reduction to votes of confidence or competition among purely symbolic formulas is more questionable. Two sets of preconditions may be responsible for this situation: First, the image of the competent voter informing himself about the details of a bill is pure fiction.

It presupposes a degree of civic training and of political interest not obtaining with more than ten per cent of the population and unlikely to be bettered even through the most well-intentioned programmes, given the competition from other interesting pursuits.

And then we have to realize that, since the victory of democracy in the second half of the nineteenth century, politics, as exemplified by legislation, has had a tendency to favour empty formulas. Constitutions as well as other laws increasingly adopt journalistic traits. This in turn makes advertising rhetoric appear almost relevant. The mass public does not study and analyze detailed data about secondary boycotts, provisions for stock ownership and control in a proposed space communications corporation, or missile installations in Cuba.

It ignores these things until political actions and speeches make them symbolically threatening or reassuring, and it then responds to the cues furnished by the actions and the speeches, not to direct knowledge of the facts.

It is therefore political actions that chiefly shape men's political wants and 'knowledge', not the other way around. This appears as a nervous vacillation of political demand, the desire to see every whim effected at once. The age of instant coffee is the age of instant solutions everywhere based, of course, on long-range global master plans.

They are struck by a kind of permanent fever bringing forth all sorts of innovations, innovations which are nearly always expensive In democracies where the sovereign is always needy his favour can only be acquired by improving his welfare. This can hardly ever be achieved without money. For the individual taxpayer the 'price' of a service used is no longer identifiable.

Thus on the one hand cost-awareness as a factor limiting demand no longer works: There is in the public sector as opposed to the private sector a general tendency to excessive demand bringing about political postulates for an expansion of public services offered. On the other hand there is by no means a corresponding willingness to contribute to the costs.

One reason for this is the possibility of redistribution where it is not the beneficiaries that have to bear the costs of the additional supply but other groups.

Still, if we consider that the net redistributory effects of public budgets are rather small and tendentially even regressive, then the main cause for this state of affairs seems to be the maximum separation of the determination of the sum total of the budget which fixes the tax ceiling from the earmarking of the monies for the various categories of services.

It may be said that the standard for meeting citizens' demands will itself be subject to the democratic process and that it will thereby contribute to the problem solving capacity of the system even here.

Still, the constraints placed by the scarcity of financial and other means on the solution of problems democratically perceived to be in need of a solution may eventually endanger democracy itself. The history of democracies shows that the absence of the second conviction will either lead to the introduction of oligarchical elements or to the system's abandonment in favour of an authoritarian one. We will now be concerned with democracy's role in the stabilization of the political system, i.

In order to avoid unnecessary duplication I shall now only talk about one aspect of conflict resolution and about legitimation. That is because only here do we have to do with basic problems which are not treated or not adequately treated in connection with federalism. On the other hand, everything which has to be said about other stabilization functions may be contrasted with the relevant functions of federalism no. Conflicts or tensions may have primarily material causes or primarily demographical ones.

Insofar as democratic procedures reduce material conflicts, this is mainly achieved by their legitimizing attributes see especially the comments on the majority principle no. Therefore, the resolution of material conflicts will not be discussed here. Questions which individual groups consider as essential for their very existence cannot be decisively solved by majority decision in the overarching system, because groups which are continuously in a minority position do not accept the system as a legitimate decision mechanism in such matters.

The integration of different population groups in a democracy has to be achieved by forms which, whilst being of a democratic nature, still modify democracy to a considerable degree. For this we know several, partially overlapping models, the most important of which I shall now briefly discuss. In democracies assimilation may only be brought about in a very slow and gradual way through the success of other models. In the short run it is only possible with very specific groups, as for example in Switzerland with foreigners who want to become citizens and from whom a severe naturalization procedure demands full personal assimilation.

It explains the low level of conflict obtaining in some plural systems as being due to the fact that group allegiances criss-cross. This makes for a continuous shifting of the fronts of conflict, which prevents individual tensions from becoming strong enough to endanger the stability of the whole system.

Further consideration will be given to this model when we deal with federalist integration of groups no. Community, it is essential to note, does not make for cohesion in the same way as consensus. The latter obviates the need for searching out agreements, while the former makes for cohesion rather through norms that facilitate the quest for agreements - for example by putting a high value on agreeing as an end in itself, even where men are manifestly divided as happens in most societies when events, such as war, induce temporarily strong sentiments of solidarity , or by cultivating a certain political considerateness of others: The segregation models try to have as few points of contact or of friction as possible amongst groups by granting to each of them maximum autonomy and by reducing the need for consensus to a few central affairs.

The better known one is federalism. The greater part of this book is devoted to it. There are other segregationary approaches which may be mentioned without further explanation. The first of these is the Ottoman Millet system no. It differs from consociationalism by its mechanistic integration at the centre of elites that have little will to co-operate. Corporativism also should be mentioned see no. As an explicit model consociational democracy or accommodation democracy as it is sometimes also called is based on Lijphart's analysis of Dutch politics L But it may also be used outside the Netherlands to explain political stability in countries where population groups are to a considerable degree segregated, as for instance in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Israel, Switzerland and Uruguay.

The main characteristic of consociational democracy is a clear mutual distrust between population groups coupled with an elite policy of co-operation and peaceful settlement of conflicts. The latter it quite obviously does no longer. Our interest is for the model as such. Social communication across class and religious boundary lines is minimal. Each group has its own ideology and its own political organizations: Yet television later on made strict segregation over the long run impossible.

There must be a minimum of agreement on fundamentals. Dutch national consensus is weak and narrow, but it does contain the crucial component of a widely shared attitude that the existing system ought to be maintained and not be allowed to disintegrate. The second key requirement is that the leaders of the selfcontained blocs must be particularly convinced of the desirability of preserving the system. And they must be willing and capable of bridging the gaps between the mutually isolated blocs and of resolving serious disputes in a largely nonconsensual context.

Consociational democracy accepts elite government as a fact. And, finally, there is a danger in consociational regimes that citizen dissatisfaction is not absorbed by changes in government but produces a generalized discontent with the regime as such. If voter disaffection is mobilized by new political parties, these may be antisystem or antiregime parties but they are not necessarily antidemocratic.

And because the typical electoral system of consociational democracy is proportional representation, it is easy for new parties to gain a voice in the political process. This is what happened when consociational government began to break down in the Netherlands in the late s. The relative ease with which consociationalism can be discarded makes the persistence of a democratic regime more likely.

This argument can also serve as a final reply to the various charges of the insufficiently democratic character of consociational democracy: It is a description of a certain type of regime to be found in various countries. But Lijphart goes further. He ascribes also normative value to his model: This proposition has greatly influenced South African intellectuals, as I have been able to see myself in the years and The new South African Constitution is an attempt to achieve consociational democracy for the white, the Indian and the brown population groups -but not for the blacks- in a mechanist way.

But consociationalism arranged for by one of the partners does not conform to the prerequisite of elite compromise. Federal theory can therefore be regarded as a limited and special type of consociational theory. Similarly, federalism can be used as a consociational method when the plural society is a 'federal society': Because government at the subnational level is in practice always organized along territorial lines, federalism offers an especially attractive way of implementing the idea of segmental autonomy.

True, fear of punishment is a powerful inducement to obedience. But the most stable support will derive from the conviction on the part of the member that it is right and proper for him to accept and obey the authorities and to abide by the requirements of the regime. It reflects the fact that in some vague or explicit way he sees these objects as conforming to his own moral principles, his own sense of what is right and proper in the political sphere.

This harmony does not have to be perfect; but neither must it sink below a certain level. Legitimacy of regimes is no abstract quality. It depends on subjective attitudes. The meaning of the first three concepts is self-evident.

Democracy is the main type of procedural legitimation. To-day this form of legitimacy is for all practical purposes the only one universally accepted. For the social system the democratic myth has thus also the function of justifying governance. From a systemic point of view, democracy thereby guarantees the continuity of the system.

It may be that the actual exercise of participation is limited, both by citizen interest and by factual possibilities. The multitude as well as the complexity of such decisions make this impossible. However, in the final analysis democratic regimes may trace back their legitimation to ultimate citizen consent. This is the old idea of the social compact no. But consent is not directed towards some legal text.

The latter are no longer learning. But what should be the rules for arriving at political decisions? Yet for the non-persuaded to follow the opinions of somebody else there has to be a compelling conviction that no alternative action is possible. Such a conviction may be based on the fear of force.

As such, it does not interest us here. But as a rule the conviction will be based on the fact that the decision emanates from some authority which in the context of a given political culture is considered to be legitimate for this sort of decision.

It is not, strictly speaking, their majority. This is easy to demonstrate. If for instance there would always be the same majority imposing its will on the same minority, we could expect sooner or later a legitimacy crisis. This again is subject to the beliefs held in a given political culture. In early forms of democracy, theory and practice favoured weighted over counted votes.

This is no surprise if we consider the interests of the bourgeoisie that struggled for democratic rights. Those who pay no taxes, disposing by their votes of other people's money, have every motive to be lavish and none to economise. As far as money matters are concerned, any power of voting possessed by them is a violation of the fundamental principle of free government; a severance of the power of control from the interest in its beneficial exercise.

It amounts to allowing them to put their hands into other people's pockets for any purpose which they think fit to call a public one. The only thing which can justify reckoning one person's opinion as equivalent to more than one is individual mental superiority; and what is wanted is some approximate means of ascertaining that. If there existed such a thing as a really national education or a trustworthy system of general examination, education might be tested directly.

In the absence of these, the nature of a person's occupation is some test. It is the majority of one that especially provokes contradiction: And now one of the people's representatives crosses from the right to the left without evident motive thereby tipping the scales; he is making the law. And this law, this expression of some fantastic will, this is to be considered the will of the people!

That is the opinion which, for the time being, represents the neglected interests, the side of human well-being which is in danger of obtaining less than its share. Still, this has not been so to the same degree as for general and equal franchise. Constitutional law for instance presents many cases of some qualified majority requirements. But it is possible to give rational arguments for them.

Public choice theory nevertheless makes a very interesting attempt: If a constitutional decision maker were a cost minimizer, and the two types of costs described above were an accurate representation of the costs he perceives, we would expect him to prefer the constitutional choice of a decision rule where the two cost curves intersect. When the two cost curves are roughly symmetrical, some form of simple majority vote would be a rational choice of a voting rule.

If in a political system we have to anticipate difficulties resulting from a simple majority decision to be greater than those entailed by the enlarging of the basis for consensus, the introduction of some qualified majority would seem to be appropriate. It also tends to If we were to complete condition 5 by Edelman's thesis about the symbolic contents of political information no. But this would be a misconception of its function.

Democratic procedures are a sham only if they are measured against their rhetoric. In reality they are but a means to submit fundamental political decisions to the largest possible forum, in order to bestow legitimacy upon them through the acquiescence of the ruled and also to open up additional channels of information, no. In plural democracies see especially the discussion of consociationalism, no.

It is more likely that majoritarianism may have to be defused at the outset through special institutions to protect these groups veto, coalition-type government, etc. But if we say that we presume a specific kind of political culture, what is political culture? To take as an example British political institutions, we immediately see that they are a creation of British political culture and, in turn, have their influence on the latter. They cannot be transplanted to places where the foundations are not the same without having different results.

The unsuccessful attempts to introduce Westminster institutions in Africa and in Asia are obvious demonstrations of this truth. Almond for instance makes a distinction between a parochial, a subject and a participant type. It demands a certain level of intellectual abilities.

But intellectual abilities are not enough. If we look to Verba's definition we will also ask for certain kinds of values and behavioural attitudes. It is not easy to say what is part of these attitudes and what is not. In this sense the ideal democratic citizen would believe in the legitimacy, general competence and good will of political authorities whilst being convinced at the same time that he has the right if not the duty to influence their decisions and to remedy abuses.

The people must have an inherently strong tendency to be obedient and allegiant - regardless of particular circumstances. This tendency will be referred to as deference. This term is here used in its broadest meaning: For the masses this entails respect for and submission to their superiors.

These deferential attitudes are strong among the Dutch. This enables the system to act with some ease even in many nonconsensual areas that is, those not governed clearly by communal norms But at any given time we may still discern the following ones: The dimensions of these different publics vary according to conditions that have been largely elucidated by science.

But normally the active public is very much smaller than the other two. At no time and under no definition is it probable that it comprises more than one percent of the electors. The democratic form of government always exhibits oligarchic and even autocratic elements. Populations must not only be seen as assemblies of individuals. They are also assemblies of groups see also no. Practically all states have a plural structure of population for pluralism see no.

They are based on political part-cultures showing more or less great differences. An important part of the general political culture, therefore, is formed by the values and rules governing the living together of these groups. In democracies this coincides practically always with the renunciation in some form federalism, consociationalism etc. Plural democracy is a concept which shows an inherent tension.

It is this tension that we shall examine below in connection with a specific kind of plural democracy: They are based on two dimensions: Lijphart distinguishes between four types of democratic systems, depending on whether the political culture is homogeneous or pluralist, and on whether elite behaviour is oriented towards co-operation or conflict.

According to Lijphart, homogeneous culture and co-operation-oriented elite behaviour make for a depoliticized model of democracy. The same kind of elite behaviour in a pluralist setting results in consociational or accommodational democracy no. If elite behaviour is conflict-oriented, we have the models of centripetal democracy with homogeneous political culture and of centrifugal democracy with pluralist political culture.

The latter is either a transitory state of affairs on the way to disintegration or it is associated with continuous crises of government. In centripetal democracy we may expect one elite or coalition of elites to impose its will on the others. Amongst them are the mass media. There is a near kinship between moral routine reactions as called forth by these media and the blind following of fascist and communist ideologies' dogmas. But this is very often not the case.

This results in the disintegration of values It is still very much an open question what the form of the twenty-first century's political culture will be. Such functions are assigned by a given social value system to a specific regime, in our case to the democratic regime. Citizen participation for instance is a core element of democracy. In one form or another it is essential for the functions of both learning and stabilization.

But citizen participation is also deemed to have humanitarian ends. Participation facilitates in the political realm the preeminence of human development and self-determination, both committed to the ideas of freedom and equality. This, to my mind, is one of its greatest merits. I will not treat these specific functons in detail here.

Relevant considerations are examined in the corresponding discussion of assigned functions of federalism no. Left to themselves they will search for it, they will love it, and they will feel grieved if it is removed from them.

Yet for equality they have a passion ardent, unquenchable, eternal, and invincible. One is arithmetic and the other one according to one's due. By arithmetic equality I want to say that according to quantity or to size something is the same and equal. By proper equality I hold something to be equal according to its proportions. Equality according to one's due is to be understood as an attempt at a synthesis of individual autonomy and public governance.

This can be explained in the historic context of the interests of the bourgeois class. But democratic ideology also had to come to terms with conservative objections pointing to natural inequalities.

Certainly, by any ballot-box, Jesus Christ goes just as far as Judas Iscariot; and with reason, according to the New Gospels, Talmuds and Dismal Sciences of these days. The definitions of equality, of due, and of justice are also subject to the democratic process.

The characteristic element of modern democracy is the dismantling of inequalities of every kind. In the final analysis both classical and modern Western democracy aim to enhance the individual person. The difference lies with the methods used and especially with the role of the state in this process. And as political freedom is nothing but a special kind of protection for certain areas of individual autonomy from majority dictate, it is particularly endangered in egalitarian democracies.

I see an uncounted multitude of men, all similar and equal, in constant agitation to procure themselves little vulgar pleasures with which to fill their souls Above them there is an immense tutelary power that unassisted assumes the task to provide for their pleasures and to look to their future.

This power is absolute, detailed, orderly, farsighted, and benign I have always thought that this kind of servitude Social atomism is the antithesis of pluralism, where groups are the building blocks. Pluralist democracy stands for the equal treatment of varied groups. This will of necessity result in a certain measure of inequality towards individuals. The concept of equality in the modern, individualist, and all-embracing sense is clearly strained if it has to include the acceptance of the autonomy of plural groups.

This tension becomes obvious precisely in the relations of democracy, modern democracy especially, with federalism. I do not believe in such an enterprise. It would be unlikely to bear more fruit than the scholastic quarrels in former centuries.

All that may in fairness be insisted on is that it becomes clear in the context of an author's thesis what he means by using the word federalism and that he applies a certain economy to his use of concepts by not calling the same thing under different names as would be the case, for example, if pluralism were to be equated with federalism. But the last expectation is possibly already too ambitious. My only aim is to bring some clarity to conceptual relationships and to show what we are talking about.

It goes without saying that I shall try to use consistent terminology. But I make no purist claims. The particularity of this association is that the groups as such have a special function in central decision making and they possess also a certain autonomy. Such a system is pluralist no. It is only when the basis of group diversity is territorial that we call it federalist no. If the territorially organized groups are at the same time states under the law of nations we may then talk about a confederacy or a confederation of states no.

And if both the association and its members are states -the latter, it is true, in a limited sense- then we are confronted with a federation no. This classification at least has the merit that each definition is deduced from a more general one by the introduction of a strict minimum of additional limitations. However, a proviso must be made for the concept of federation. This is not only a scientific term. It may also be a de iure term defined by a given constitution.

This means that it is logically possible that there is federation without federalism no. It conveys nothing, or very little, about the essence, the meaning, and the ends of federalism. The dynamic aspects of federalism and its relation to democracy will only be seen when we analyse the functional aspects of federalism no. Furthermore, the distinction provides a useful framework for the understanding of the characteristics of other definitions.

Such characteristics usually emphasize specific goals implicit in the definitions. Alternatively, federalism could be defined by isolating specific institutions that establish the federal character of a political system.

This approach is not very successful. It either leads to a vague concept e. To Hughes federations are but a subspecies of the constitutional type of government, differentiated by some institutional elements of confederacy which alone has true conceptual reality.

This approach reminds us of the notion of federation as a decentralized unitary state, no. To state it briefly: It may be any association at all. However, at the centre of theories of pluralism we nearly always find the state and thus political pluralism. The groups may represent any deliberately formed human associations. These may be based on ethnic, professional, religious, geographic, voluntary and other affiliations.

That they enjoy a certain independence, that is autonomous regulation, is both a result of their organization as a group and a practical prerequisite for their participation in central decision making. This participation has to be secured and permanent; it must not be left to chance. The guarantee is to be found in the existence of regular mechanisms for participation with their own sanctions.

A similar approach was to be found in Appartheid South Africa. The Constitution in existence before in no way corresponded with the plural structure of society. Nevertheless, we find a modern application in the Yugoslav Constitution, where the Federation Council is composed of representatives from enterprises, local communities and social organizations.

It has been used, for example, by Schmitter. This somewhat diminishes the analytical value of his concept. The models of pluralism and of democracy are very often closely intertwined. For an overview of different, mainly British and American, schools of pluralism see Nicholls L The functions ascribed to pluralism are very often the same as those assigned to federalism.

Therefore, a considerable part of the presentation below no. In this context there are two mechanisms which have been closely analysed: The main characteristic of the groups, then, is their relationship to some specific part of the globe's surface. It appears that this territorial element is one of the most vital components of political structures generally. This may be one of the reasons for the comparatively large number of federal organizations relative to other plural ones.

This recognizes ordinary usage whereby an entity with a small degree of autonomy would be called decentralized rather than federal as to this distinction see no. And lastly we must be careful not to interpret autonomy in an absolute sense.

The English term was coined during the Civil War in This is certainly the case for the United States and Canada. See the comments on federation and confederation, no. It is an organizational principle in the political or social realm. Confederation and federation are both legal terms no. In such a case the general meaning of the word would not suffice for its interpretation.

The legal construction would have to be arrived at in the context of the specific constitutional arrangements. I prefer not to include such elements but to look at them in the context of the functions of federalism no. However, both approaches are not of much help for classification. It is obvious that this term covers but a segment of the subject. But there are also nongovernmental entities we may call federal, such as the League of Red Cross Societies, trade unions, and political parties especially in federations.

And finally associations of states are federal systems, as for instance the United Nations and the Council of Europe. One is to include decision processes that take place within collectives. The other approach extends the field of inquiry to non-state, non-regional associations. Let us see how we may differentiate them. American texts very often make little distinction between intergovernmental relations and federalism. We may imagine a continuum of links ranging from no connection at all to complete unity.

It is on such a continuum that we must localize our terms. Viewed from the one end of the row - unrelated diversity - to the other -unity- the process will appear as one of centralization or consolidation. Centralization is usually more concerned with the concentration of procedures, consolidation with the concentration of structures.

But we may also look at the continuum from the other side, from unity to diversity. Then we are faced with decentralization, particularization, disintegration, or separatism. Again these are processes. The concept of federalism occupies a fairly large range somewhere in the centre of the continuum, where particularist and unitary elements overlap.

If we transfer these considerations to government we may say that confederation as well as federation are to be found in some place between the complete theoretical independence of states and their equally theoretical consolidation in a totally undifferentiated unitary state.

They see it as the common denominator for federalism, democracy, and the market economy. Decentralization, then, would stand for the transfer of powers to local communities with a certain autonomy. Transfer to autonomous local units is also known as devolution, especially in British parlance.

But usage is very loose. As a matter of fact there exists no difference of quality but only one of degree: If we are only concerned with the logical graduation of legal normativity we may accept this idea of Duverger and others. But it does not do justice to the political phenomenon of federalism. As we have seen, the essence of federalism lies in the fact that it rests upon arguments as to why a group of polities ought, despite certain common interests, to remain decisively themselves and ought not to form a nation.

Decentralization, on the contrary, presupposes a nation and rests upon arguments merely as to how the nation ought to be organized so as to achieve liberty or other desired qualities.

It is not unity that is the basis but particularism. For federations, to take the typically federal form of government, it is not decentralization that is essential but non-centralization. Federalism is based on the assumption that its constituent parts are to a considerable degree self-organized and self-managed.

The whole discussion is very much steeped in the whimsicalities of European constitutional law traditions. To call a federation a decentralized unitary state introduces a polemical element into the discussion. From a pure theory of law viewpoint, the unitary state is a tautology. As legal systems states are, according to this theory, always unitary. If logical consistency were the aim -and Kelsen's school aims for it- federations might be called decentralized states.

To talk about decentralized unitary states makes sense only if we wish to introduce a pointedly anti-federal note. But they do not coincide. Federalism is concerned with the structure of the decision-making process, with the co-existence and co-operation of different autonomies no. The principle of subsidiarity may be optimally implemented within a federal structure.

It also has its place in unitary states, e. But this was not successful. Within the European Union's legal framework subsidiarity is a concept of law.

But it is questionable to what degree its application corresponds to the bottom-up approach usually associated with the term. The term has two different if related connotations. The other meaning is connected with the concept of help: It signifies that one should always start with the smallest group or even with individuals when allocating functions. This level is always competent insofar as it can assume a function effectively and without damage to others. Only those problems that exceed the group's possibilities are to be assumed by the next more encompassing group.

The view-points are different. This is the same with political parlance. The subsidiarity principle in its theory of government meaning is invoked when the non-centralization of a function is to be defended. The other meaning is emphasized when there is a need to justify financial subsidies. But this is too narrow an understanding. Subsidiarity is first and foremost a principle for the allocation of functions in federations.

Despite other authors' doubts, it is helpful to use subsidiarity as a principle for assigning the burden of proof in discussions about the division of functions in federations. As a matter of fact, it is more functional than most other approaches such as national interest or spillover theories. From a federalist perspective, subsidiarity introduces a bias towards non-centralization. Given the overwhelmingly centralizing pull of modern institutions this is not an undesirable counterweight.

Nevertheless, it is here that scientific interest is most acute. Two specific forms are in the foreground of discussions: Very often, for instance, territorial units like provinces or communes enjoy a relatively high degree of autonomy and even participate in central decision making.

In federations there is also a relatively high probability that the member states will show traits of federalism in their organization. In unitary states with demographically different units we may also find elements of federalism.

The Spanish Constitution reads very much like that of a federation. Federalism is undoubtedly more universal than federations are! Thus there exists a kind of confederation of the fifteen Benedictine congregations which are themselves federally structured. I see no point in confining discussions The federal principle can be and is in the American context used to organize numerous concurrent regimes. A far more realistic symbol is that of the marble cake. Wherever you slice through it you reveal an inseparable mixture of differently colored ingredients.

There is no horizontal stratification. Vertical and diagonal lines almost obliterate the horizontal ones, and in some places there are unexpected whirls and an imperceptible merging of colors, so that it is difficult to tell where one ends and the other begins.

So it is with federal, state, and local responsibilities in the chaotic marble cake of American government. It is therefore not necessary to emphasize this element no. They are restricted to a few specific common tasks. It is thus possible - and normal - for a state to be a partner in several confederations. An earlier German doctrine considered certain ends to be conceptually essential: But to-day we are also talking about confederations, even if they have nothing to do with security, being for instance concerned with economic problems only, or with very restricted technical ones e.

Still, not every international treaty institutes a confederation or union. This occurs only when some sort of common decision making is institutionalized. This institutionalization, incidentally, will sometimes go very far and the common functions may be so important that the new entity is treated not unlike a state in international relations as with the United Nations and the European Communities.

The inventors of modern federations, the founding fathers of the American Constitution no. The result was a new kind of regime, federation. This explains why the partisans of the Constitution were very often attacked as anti-federalists: A modern parallel to this discussion is Hughes's theory granting conceptual reality only to confederation no. It is comparatively recent no.

I will come back to this after analysing the concept of federation no. But both unions are soluble and transitions are fluid. The few countries which are not yet members of the United Nations, Taiwan for instance, are bound to other nations through a multitude of different treaties.

Like most legal terms the concept of federation has two aspects. First it is a subject for constitutional law or theory in general for a contrary view: However, this is not enough to understand fully the practical applications of the concept. We have to consider also its use in a given constitution. The concept of federation as we find it in the basic law thus has two sources.

By using this term the actual wording is different the constitution refers to general theory. Thus the federal character of communist and Latin American federations is denied by many scholars. Nevertheless, the fact that separate authorities do exist may create the fertile soil necessary for a certain federalist evolution.

As to the Yugoslav Constitution, it was the most dogmatically federalist basic law ever devised see for instance the member republics' absolute veto power in article We may perhaps question the effectiveness of such federalist elements.

Usually, but not necessarily, this system will be related to a constitutional structure establishing an independent legal existence for both central and regional governments, and providing that neither shall be legally subordinate to the other.

The functions of government will be distributed between these levels exclusively, competitively, or co-operatively , initially perhaps by a political process, involving where appropriate the judiciary This, together with the related debate about the status of member states, will be treated in more detail below no.

First, the association has to be a state, i. This establishes a differentiation from a confederation for details see no. This parlance is somewhat questionable because it is obvious that such entities differ from the nation states which usually participate in international relations.

This has a close connection to the discussion about sovereignty in federations no. Science thus has no choice but to accept that there exists some state quality to be defined in member states, even if we lack legal yardsticks for the clear-cut differentiation from provincial self-government in political reality this may be simpler.

But an evident distinction between member states and provinces is not possible. In addition to this, there is the problem that in some countries such as Canada by article 5 of the Constitution member states are called provinces.

In the final analysis the difference between member states and autonomous provinces is largely one of terminology and of little importance so long as it is not used as the basis for normative deductions and it is clear what one talks about. The particularity of a member state as compared with an autonomous province cannot be deduced from the term but only from the fact that it is part of a federation. The observer's ideological viewpoint will colour his assessment. The field is open-ended at both sides.

Where, on the other side, a federation shows unitary traits, the member states' independence is more or less restricted in favour of the federal government. Let us just say at this point that there are different variants of participation. A member state may either participate as a structured political unity through its authorities, or it may appear as an essentially statistical base as is the case with electoral boundaries.

It is also necessary to look not only to legal texts but to the political realities of participation, which are sometimes much more important than the texts e. Finally, we must not overlook that there is a relationship between the relatively high degree of autonomy postulated and participation. On the other hand, it is difficult to conceive that participation would be of much importance in the long run if it were not based on autonomous political activities in the member states.

These, again, presuppose a considerable degree of independence. There is a tendency in modern German theory to give priority to participation to the exclusion of autonomy. This is to say that it must not be at the mercy of the central government.

It will also happen regularly, i. But this is a by-product. Participation of the centre in member state decision making is not an element of federalism. It may even open the way to the destruction of autonomy. This form of participation is a form of decentralization rather than non-centralization no. This is neither necessary nor practical. If such a distinction were really to be made it would be more sensible to refer to the level of autonomy and of participation than to the origin of the federation.

But there are deviations. We find them in multi-level federations e. The principle of equality is of some political importance but it is not conceptually essential. It may even be said that one of the real-type characteristics of member states, which sets them apart from decentralized regions in unitary states, is the ability to change the boundaries and the political structures of local government. Member states may be organized as unitary states. This usually leads to two conclusions.

In the second place, a member state is free in granting autonomy to local government. The first conclusion may be politically sound as a means of bolstering state autonomy and discouraging central circumvention of state governments. But it is wrong to assume that member state autonomy is not compatible with an original, constitutionally acknowledged, right to exist for local government. As to the second conclusion it fails to grasp that this is compatible with federation but hardly compatible with the fact that federations should ideally be an embodiment of the federal principle.

This federal principle should be pervasive where its prerequisites are to be found at the local level. Where has centralism really started from? In the cantons and even in the communes; contamination and bad examples come from there. Duchacek has therefore proposed ten criteria he does not weight them for this purpose.

Has the central authority exclusive control over diplomacy and defense as befits a nation-state in its relations with other nations? Is the federal union constitutionally immune against dissolution by secession? Is the exercise of the central authority as it reaches all citizens directly independent of the individual approval and resources of the component units? Who has the ultimate control over amendments to the federal constitution? Are the component units immune to elimination of their identity antedating or postdating the union and authority?

Is the collective sharing in federal rule making adequately secured by equal representation of unequal units in a bicameral system? What are the constitutional provisions for collective sharing in the executive and judiciary rule implementation?

Are there two independent sets of courts, one interpreting and adjudicating the federal laws and the other the state laws? Is there a judicial authority in the central authority but standing above the central authority and the component units to determine their respective rights?

Have the component units retained all the powers that the constitution has not given the central authority? And are these retained powers significant or marginal? Is the territorial division of authority clear and unambiguous? It strictly depends on its definition whether sovereignty is divisible or not and whether it is comprehensive or limited.

It is therefore appropriate to arrive at some conceptual clarity about sovereignty and the scientific function of this term no. It is my thesis that for the theory of government the concept of sovereignty is no longer functionally necessary and that it is therefore superfluous no. Nevertheless, for the sake of completeness I shall also deal with the federal consequences of various doctrines of sovereignty no. It is a concept of legal methodology. Sovereignty in its legal meaning is comprehensive legal power, not delegated and thus supreme.

In German public law doctrine sovereignty is usually tied in its abstract sense to the state. To be consistent this state must also be taken as an abstraction. To describe a given state, e. Australia, as sovereign would point to its being the holder of supreme power, see below.

But it took second place to the concept of the holder of supreme power. It had to take second place because the idea of sovereignty evolved as a political weapon, first in the conflict between church and state, and later in the struggle between absolutist monarchy and the estates of the realm. The focus, obviously, was on who was sovereign, who was to hold supreme power. Supreme Power can no more be limited than infinity can be measured, because it ceaseth to be the thing; its very being is dissolved when any bounds can be put to it.

This holder is the sovereign. And he that carryeth this Person, is called Soveraigne, and said to have Soveraigne Power; and every one besides, his Subject. Two aspects proved to be of particular importance: It was this second approach which the French and English monarchomachs used in their conflict with absolutist monarchy after the latter's victory over Papal aspirations.

It would not have been expedient for the instrument in this struggle for supremacy to contain restricting elements which might have limited one's own claims. The problem of how to safeguard individual interests against state encroachment remained.

This became the new focus for constitutional policy. The absolutist content the concept of sovereignty had assumed during the earlier struggles hindered the breakthrough of liberalism. The liberal thinkers used two approaches to deal with sovereignty both having their own traditions. They considered state sovereignty to be limited in its extent. It had to respect an area of individual liberty where even the sovereign majority had no right to intrude.

The second course was the theory of the separation of powers. The exercise of sovereignty was to be functionally and personally distributed for the sake of guaranteeing individual liberty.

I agree with your assessment of the movie and didn't like the unexpected ending. But I thought the two lead actresses were appealing, and provided good performances.

Hope to see them again in something with better GIMPage. Like the others, I am sorry to hear about the fire and the losses you suffered, but I'm glad you weren't injured. It doesn't interest me, but it may help you decide whether to see it or not.

Saturday, December 5th - That's an interesting site you found there, dude. Even has screen caps. I don't think cutting off her hair was the right thing -- that punishes the viewer more than the victim! At least they pulled her blouse and bra off -- hurrah for Kidnappers ! Hot girl but wasted Gimp opportunities IMO. Plus Jack Palance performance was way too weird. AOH do you know about this one?

I've just obtained Inferno , which I believe was the first in Argento's "Mother" trilogy. I'll report back to the members if it gives good GIMP. Any help is really appreciated. Suspiria was the first entry in Argento's trilogy. Inferno was the second. I think thats a new store. I put out a movie this weekend called "Liar". I made this 2 minute preview movie with this forum in mind.

When you see the hogtie sequence, those cries of pain was not acting, however, she wanted to keep going regardless. She's a keeper for sure. Today's pics are almost perfect. As someone who likes BDSM and sex, not violence, it would be so nice to see Jane tied up like that in exactly that position and viewed from the side just like that, except without all the bloody marks.

Just sayin' Liquor in the front, poker in the rear. Thanks for sharing the clip from The Babysitter with the forum. I did some investigating. Apparently, that film was actually directed by Tom Laughlin of "Billy Jack" fame which also contains a bondage rape under an alias.

I enjoyed that clip and I'm going to see if I can track down a better copy of the movie. Anybody know if it's out on DVD? Also, I should be getting my first taste of the PKF movies this week. I sent in my check for 6 movies and I should have the download links sometime after John checks his PO box. And the girl in this new Liar movie is very nice. I hope someone reviews this one for the board because the movie definitely shows promise.

Fixed Preview Thanks, JohnM. Blonde hottie Jacquelyn Velvets is strung up in a 1 piece sleeveless outfit and hammered pretty hard for about 4 minutes. There is no nudity or blood as in John M's flix but the acting is pretty f'n good. Most of her stuff is chloro, so unfortunately for me I think she won't be in that predicament again. Pretty much sucked since it's mostly chloro. Henshaw is strung up AOH for a short while and is punched a couple of times no blood but it annoyed the hell outta me that the villain didn't take off her sweater jacket.

I didn't get to see the actual movie 'til I was like 21, and of course it was nowhere near what I had hoped, but MAN that is a good box cover. And even with a finale L. And I thought no one paid attention. The only problem with Summer and Logan is very limited Gimp scenes. Suppose you've captured a hottie and you're trying to decide which type of punishment you want to deal out first - chain her to a fence, whip her, or set her on fire? You can have it all.

Thanks for sharing the clip from The Babysitter with the forum Not sure if it's the same segment as the Anubis clip. No GIMPage, not even any nudity.

What a waste of pretty women, especially Irene Miracle "Midnight Express". Move along, GIMPers, nothing to see here. Monday, December 7th - Thanks for the lowdown. Mother of Tears was loaded.

There was a shower scene with the main actress Asia Argento. The main witch was shown several times, along with her helpers. With so many nude scenes they chose the Gimp scene to scrimp on. I might have to do some creative book-keeping to afford this, and Samantha Jo's Pawn Shop shoot. She is hot, hot, HOT!

Fairy lights, the works. You can inquire again after the high season. If I remember correctly I'm suspended and whipped in the last one. Ralphus - Thank you so very much for the promotion!! It was simply fabulous to see myself here. Tuesday, December 8th - Ralphus - I totally agree - today's header is very alluring, naked or not. Just caught the Video Mayhem fire news - so glad all turned out as well as possible under the circumstances.

Watched a Quentin Tarantino interview over the weekend - looked like it was a couple of years old - he was citing what he considered to be the best movies made since he's been directing - he cited one that has been mentioned a couple times on this forum, "Memories of Murder", a Korean effort with some nice bondage sequences - we know he's a big foot fetish guy but a Gimper to boot perhaps.

Stay Well All Tuesday, December 8th - Ah, you're taking me back to my video store days. Yeah, there used to be certain videos got rented out all the time Back before everything went PC, I guess. Maybe the movie wasn't what you hoped for, but Abduction actually has a few very good GIMP moments in it. It starts off with the aforementioned cover scene But afterward is when it gets good.

Here's the entry from the Mainstream Rape Database: Excellent, brutal scene of a kidnapped heiress Judith-Marie Bergan in a story reminiscent of the Patty Hearst story. She is seated on a bed, blindfolded, with her hands tied in front of her. Her kidnappers decide to break her spirit by gang-raping her. They violently yank her by her bare legs until they are hanging off the side of the bed and she is moved into position.

One man noisily rapes her while she cries. Then a black man removes her blindfold, so that she can have a good look at the man who is violating her. He pounds away at her and she can only lightly sob. Also rare in a mainstream scene is that the lead actress shows public hair during a rape scene. Looks like the DVD is out of print, but it's worth checking out if you can find a copy somewhere.

Thanks for the tip on Something Weird Video. I think that collection may just be trailers, though. I'll keep looking for the complete movie.

I'm sure someone has it. No thanks required, it was my pleasure to run the Agent X pics for the forum. I know the other pervs here loved seeing you suffer. And I haven't given up on my dream request Maybe you can work that into one of your future productions. Let me know and I can help you out.

I'll even bring the matches. My check came back in the mail marked Return To Sender, Address Unknown resisting the urge to break into song. Turns out I accidentally left one number off the actual address and the post office sent it back. So I had to look it up again and send it in a second time. I don't think so. The only time he ever has bondage in his films is when he ties up guys. Excepting, of course, for Uma Thurman's lame-o hands-in-front scene in one of the "Kill Bill'" films.

So if you're bored with the new stuff, you can enjoy some scintillating reruns. Wednesday, December 9th - Help me out, guys. I think some thwacking across the chest and belly is in order, at least as a warm-up activity. I dig these, Ralphus; hope you've got more of 'em.

Sardu Ralphus, I love the new daily pics. Who's the artist of today's? Well to quote my favorite GIMP villian, "a bit of the ol' in and outs" is in order with a beauty so nicely trussed up. The artist of today's daily pic?

It was just something I found online. The style looks sort of familiar, though. Anybody been catching the news lately? Apparently Tiger Woods has had a few "transgressions". The mistresses just keep coming out of the woodwork every day. What is it, 9 of them now? The way things are going, his wife is going to divorce him and take half his shit.

Never before have 9 holes cost Tiger Woods so much. Why is this on-topic here? It's not, except for this part: Apparently one of them is a porn actress. I haven't checked her background but apparently, she's done some bondage.

A friend of mine mailed me this pic. Think Tiger was the one who did this? Apparently for her bondage work, she also uses the name "Nicolette Foster".. She's apparently done quite a bit of "love bondage" work, including the following:. Ralphus--Email me with what you were ordering and I will get a few of them uploaded.

I know you are good for it. JohnM Wednesday, December 9th - Only one out of the three does actually have any though. Can you guess which one?

Despite the cover, it has none. It is however a very well made little film. A must see in the genre. Boy, you guys suck at this. No, despite a title like Restraint, this one has no Gimp.

But again, a very well made thriller I recommend if you like thrillers. Plus Teresa Palmer providing the eye-candy helps this one along even more. How the Hell can you get this one wrong too? Gimp wise Satanic Panic has one OK moment and another so-so one.

In the first moment that Gimpsters might like, a female victim played by Holly Ilyne Sari is topless and clad only in panties, is tied lying on a sacrificial alter. Her ankles are tied and her arms are tied overhead to the alter.

She looks beat-up some and has a large python crawling over the bottom half of her body. The scene lasts for what seems to be a couple of minutes as she screams her head off until a knife is plunged into her chest. The second has a female victim in hiking shorts and tank-top chained to a structural support beam with her arms behind her. Later after too much screaming she is also gagged.

Whereas the first two had no Gimp but were very well made films, Satanic Panic has some Gimpage but sucks massive ass. For examples of how bad this movie is, it starts off in pseudo-documentary fashion, then switches to a storyline about two 10 year old twins getting abducted with the boy ending up sacrificed, while the girl is able to escape. Later after being rescued by the cops, the girl is back home and goes to sleep only to have a nightmare where she is bound by wrist and ankle surrounded by Satanists.

She awakens from the dream only to have fast-forwarded about 15 years or so as she is now an adult and living out of a motor home. OK, so this is where the story continues right? Plus a whole bunch of missed opportunities, such as when two of the girls break away from their boyfriends and meet up in the woods for a Lez affair. One pulls off her top and then pulls the panties off the other as she goes down on her. Perfect opportunity to abduct both and tie them for sacrifice like all good Satanists do.

Instead, one gets a spear through the head and then gets her head pushed into the belly of the other, basically wasting two girls 2 half naked girls in one shot. Badger "Help me out, guys. But with my luck, it will be a cut to "Heidi". Those younger than 60 and Canadian won't get that.

That left foot seems to be turned at a bad angle. Is Kathy Bates in the room? I agree with Ralphus. Judith-Marie Bergan is a hottie and, enjoying coerced stripping as I do, I loved the scene where she was forced to disrobe and "do it" with the female kidnapper..

I have it on DVD but don't have a clue where I got it. I don't believe them one bit. I wouldn't be surprised if most of these so-called mistresses have never even met Tiger Woods and are only coming forward out of greed or a desire to get their fifteen seconds of fame.

Anytime the opportunity to make a quick buck off of the misfortune of someone famous or get some fame from such famous person's dilemma comes up, most of us humans don't hesitate to yank our brains out of our heads, place them in our genitals, and starting making claims of "I slept with so and so" or "We have been having an affair since so and so". All of these so-called mistresses are probably nothing but money hungry gold diggers! Fair enough, but let's be honest -- most mainstream movies that make it as GIMP flicks usually leave something to be desired when it comes to cinematic value.

I would say a film such as A Clockwork Orange , which succeeds on both levels, is the exception rather than the rule. Actually, unlike most reviewers here, I don't bother with the two-grades system when I review mainstream movies one grade for the GIMP and the other for the movie as a movie.

I figure any person whose Internet prowling has got him to the point that he's checking out the GIMP reviews is probably someone who's not looking for a Roger Ebert assessment of the film as art. I just grade the mainstream flicks on the basis of whether or not they worked for me as GIMP movies. That may be true. Still, the possibility that a member of Tiger's harem has done GIMP flicks was all we needed to bring the issue everyone is discussing to the GIMP forum and still claim to be on-topic.

Mike Reiser E-mail address: Well, we can't just leave those panties lying around, can we? So they should be stuffed in our victim's mouth. And her legs should definitely be tied further apart. Then the fun can begin. I think the grade for the overall movie, not just the GIMP scenes, can be important, as it can tell the viewer whether or not to just keep hitting the fast-forward button.

Also, I like information on character development, story-lines, scenery, mood, dialogue, etc. They can add to or subtract from the overall GIMP-viewing experience of mainstream movies.

I do not understand why young, handsome superstar athletes get married early in their careers. Hell, if I was that talented and getting paid zillions of bucks to play golf , I'd be trying to bang all of the hottest bondage models around, not start a family.

I think Derek Jeter has done it right so far with Mariah Carey being an obvious blemish. I have not seen "Satanic Panic," but your description is exactly what I would expect from this movie.

GIMP scenes aside, it might be fun just to see how atrocious this film actually is. Thanks for the info. This is still my favorite, but it could also be the most misleading box cover ever.

I'm a bit late on this but I'm also glad to hear that you are safe. Forget I said anything. Sadism" is a very GIMP-worthy movie. I vividly remember seeing the edited for U. The lamentably long gone Van's Vidcap Vault had a nice page on that movie, and I've reproduced it as well as I can just for you.

Click on the thumbnails for bigger photos. But before gagging her with the panties, some forced oral would be in order. A blindfold at some point is also recommended. A length of thin bamboo for application to the breasts and abdomen is also a must. Also, just to make our sweet victim's experience a bit more degrading, we should get some magic markers and write nice things like "whore," "slut," and "beat me, whip me, fuck me till I scream" all over her cute little body.

Superheroines in bondage Best use for Kryptonite I've ever seen! Now, to get some scissors and cut that costume off. Here's the corrected links: Die Watching from As I mentioned, I used to manage video stores and when this movie came out, the studio gave you the option to order it with the bondage cover or the much tamer and much more boring alternate box. Of course, we went with the explicit one.

It was a very popular renter. Gee, I wonder why? It's kind of sad, though, that the producers must have been so embarrassed by the explicit bondage imagery that they felt like they had to give store owners an alternate choice. After all, a cheesy thriller like that had only one thing going for it, and that was the bondage scenes.

Why not promote the one thing that would sell the movie? And today, the DVD box is even worse. And it's also damn near impossible to find the original VHS bondage box cover online.

The smaller image I'm showing you is from my private collection, and it's the biggest version I could find. I still have the original VHS tape with the bondage box. I wonder how much I could sell it for on eBay?

What titles am I getting from PKF? Well, most of them were already either discussed or reviewed right here on the forum: I haven't looked at it yet. Ed My nomination for Best video box cover: It would have to be Women In Fury. In both there is a scene that I found to be a real turn on. About halfway through the movie, she is ruthlessly stripped of her clothes by several of her cellmates and beaten severely with wet towels so the queen bee of the cell can have her way with her.

If you can find a copy of this movie somewhere, it would be a worthwhile purchase. Over the years there have been many incarnations of Supergirl in the comics, cartoon, etc.

In some incarnations, she has been an inhabitant of sister planet of Krypton and has had the same physiology as Superman thus making her vulnerable to Kryptonite.

In others she has been an artificial but organic life form created by the powers that be. In these incarnations her physiology has differed from Superman's making either resistant to or even completely immune to Kryptonite. We can only hope that the Supergirl incarnation in the image is the one with a kryptonian physiology. Otherwise, her assailant would be in for a world of hurt! The vidcaps show a weak OTM gag. The vidcaps show sloppy ropework around the wrists.

The vidcaps show a rescue. The vidcaps show a woman wearing more clothing than an Eskimo. OK, the scene itself wasn't too bad and had some creativity.

But for me, it was one of the biggest disappointments I've experienced considering the lurid cover art and the title of the movie. Thursday, December 10th - Some weeks back we had some chatter concerning that epic monument to film, "Tourist Trap" with Chuck Conners and Tanya Roberts - being the sentimental type, I went out to my shed to dig it out of the archives and take a gander - much to my surprise, sitting right next to it was another Tanya Roberts effort that had completely faded from memory - now this thing has been released under a variety of titles, the most common being "Forced Entry" - not to be confused with the 70's roughie of the same title but with plenty of similarities - I've seen it titled "The Last Victim", "The Last Entry" and the completely absurd "Rape in the Suburbs" - the storyline is pretty standard fare with this dim bulb dweeb having been abused by his mother as a child - so now he takes out that hatred on women who remind him of his mother - unfortunately for the female population that includes anyone with boobs.

There are several nice Gimp moments in the film - in the second half you get Tanya in a couple of bondage sequences as the dweeb terrorizes her in her home - no nudity there but scantily clad - early on he plays good samaritan and stops to help a blonde whose car has broken down - no bondage but he does end up raping and strangling her, some nice boob shots. Another sequence involves a large breasted brunette who stops by the gas station where he works to get her bicycle tire fixed - next thing you know you get a half body shot of her from behind - he has her in the garage area, wrists are tightly bound behind and her top is gone - in a slo-mo sequence his hands appear and pull down her shorts, she is forced to the floor where he uses some garage implement on her pussy then beats her to death with it - you only see the tool come down and get raised for another strike dripping blood - you never see her face but a very eerie sequence.

Then the payoff scene - he picks up a snooty bitch hitcher played by a young Nancy Allen - you see what happened to her in a series of hazy, dim snippets as the dweeb awakes from a nightmare - in a field he has her stripped, bound wrists behind - he knocks her to the ground, then to her knees and forces her head into his crotch, the implication being clear - we assume he strangled her as well when her body is found by a passerby.

It is a semi-mainstream effort and the scenes are short, darkly lit leave much to the imagination. Any fellow Gimpers out there remember seeing this? Stay Well All Thursday, December 10th - Superheroines in bondage, anyone? Every time she lowers it, it pulls on the lift lever of the forks on the lift, increasing the tension around her noosed throat.

The more she moves, the more the tension causing her to have to, at first, stand on her toes to keep from strangling, until her weakened movements finally cause her to be lifted entirely.

YikYakker Hey folks, I've been out of commission for the past 24 hours due to a power outage caused by the winter storm that moved across the country. It's good to be back on the 'net, but there's a lot of catching up to do!

Thanks for the details about those three movies. Restraint is one that's been on my radar, but I wasn't sure what to expect. But is that a picture of a guy chained to a bathtub fixture with a naked woman walking by?

That kind of role-reversal is the stuff of a GIMPer's worst nightmares. I picked up Women in Fury awhile back and really liked that scene you described. The actress playing the victim is the stunningly beautiful Suzanne Carvalho sometimes billed as Susan Carvall.

She didn't make a lot of movies, but she made an impression on me in her role as a girl about to be sacrificed to a jungle demon while wearing nothing but a small loincloth made with beads in Massacre in Dinosaur Valley. Dude, good to see a post from you. I check your website every day.

Really like those old comic book covers. Keep up the good work! I haven't reached 60 yet, but I remember the "Heidi" incident well. That's how notorious that whole fiasco was.

It's the story of a respectable, rich and successful professional athlete who secretly abducts nine beautiful women and keeps them chained in an isolated cabin for fun and torment.

Then, they miraculously escape on the eve of a big sporting event he has put together. Violence, shame and lawsuits ensue. OK producers, the idea is free For those who want to judge or re-judge The Torture Chamber of Doctor Sadism the link above has it complete with new cover on youtube.

As I recall it wasn't bad for its day. Love the Supergirl pic That's the good thing about many superheroines, they keep bouncing back ready for the next torture session no matter what you do to them.

Imagine the fun you could have with Hayden Pantettiere Cheerleader on Heroes whose power is that she always heals no matter what is done to her body. A little too big in both size and price but maybe Jane could use couple in future productions On the Ratings question, I use the two-stage approach with a bonus based on 'star' of the film. So much better, even if the action is light, when the heroine comes close to one of our pictures of attractive perfection.

On that note, Ralphus asked me to score the two movies I mentioned so here goes. As for Five Across the Eyes C - as a movie stretches credibility and too dark to see and C- for GIMPage shots are dark, short and from the wrong angle too often but lots of good screaming and expressive facial shots with a bonus as the girls are cute and there's five of them.

I agree with you in regards to bondage and one's own movements causing their discomfort. One I'd like to see done by one of our esteemed producers are you listening guys? An even nastier variation would involve three damsels, with a rope tied to each breast leading to a different lady. I don't think you can really call it a GIMP scene, though, as Ursula seems to be rather enjoying herself.

Or maybe she's trying not to burst out laughing. The fun starts at 1: I've never seen that show, but the character sounds like a GIMPer's dream come true. I could brutally whip her until her bare back is a mass of bloody welts, and a short time later her smooth, unblemished skin would be as good as new, ready for the next round of torture.

A nice red-hot branding iron, perhaps? Of course, I hope she feels pain just as us ordinary mortals do. Otherwise, where's the fun? Did anyone see "Species 2"? It seemed the GIMPer scientists were doing that with acid! I'm going to ask Santa to bring me one of those! Thank you sir, I will definitely check these out. Always liked Jennifer Connelly. I think it's much better than the actual box cover. Of course, neither scene is found in the movie. Friday, December 11th - She looks about as flexible as Amber Rayne.

I like your scenario! Plus what made it worse was it ended up looking consensual as when the guy pulled on the rope to lift her, the knot slipped off her breasts and she ended up just standing there passively, allowing him to re-tie them. Which One Has The Gimp! You guessed The Keeper? Another skip it on both levels.

You got it in just three guesses this time. Late Fee has two minor scenes and another, depending on your viewpoint or fetish slightly better one. The first has a female prisoner in a makeshift jail cell, wearing only a shirt, is backed up against the front of the cells bars.

She then has her hands pulled up over her head and out through the bars where they are zip-tied as a female guard pats her down feels her up. The next scene has another female prisoner pregnant strapped down on an exam table. The last scene has the female prisoner from the first scene wearing a short, strapless black dress and black high heels.

She is about to be the star of a snuff movie. She is tightly gagged with a black strap and has her hands tied behind her back also with a black strap. Finishing the all black ensemble, her ankles are also tied together with black strapping.

She later gets rescued before the scene can play out. Late Fee trailer Friday, December 11th - Wondering if you had any feedback. Yes, that "strategically placed restraints" business always makes me chuckle.

Once her legs are tied further apart, she'll be ready for a few belly punches followed by a cunt punch. Let's get her screaming and crying -- just for starters.

Best use for Kryptonite I've ever seen! I agree with the second part, but I think putting the Kryptonite into a big fat dildo would be even better. At least with Good Murders, you have two reviews, so you know what you're getting. They "borrowed" that concept from Catharsis Erotica part of Necrobabes , who did a series called "Tension" -- four girls are "killed" by their own weight.

I could upload some vid-caps if you're interested. Kind of riffing on this idea, there's a mainstream movie title unknown where a topless girl has a wire noose attached to a door. Her friends are trying to rescue her but don't know about the trap, They slowly push the door open, causing her to strangle and die. It's a nice scene, esp. Belly punched by Edward Scissorhands! Shot over and over -- wait until she heals and then repeat the process.

Strangle her with barbed wire! Just don't shoot her in the head. I know this because the movie also has an AOH scene. LTL-you and it sounds like the rest of this board know me too well. I told myself I wasnt gonna buy another gruesome horror movie because of the armpit and hairy bush always present in these movies, but I got the Birch Astray.

I wonder if the producers will ever change that. Thanks for the info on Forced Entry. That was one I had sought out years ago because I had had heard Nancy Allen had a nude bondage scene in it.

I've always liked Nancy Allen But anyway, I don't remember seeing anything in that film that rung my bell. But that was several years ago and it might be time to check that one out again.

I think you gave us enough info to justify moving that one to the Reviews section, so give me a grade next time and I'll put it in there for you. Same goes for you, LTL. You've given us some important information recently but I'm not sure if it's something you want added. I'm only going to be putting up reviews if they have a grade from now on. I put your two reviews in separately.

Check out the Reviews section under Mainstream for the links. Here's a few observations: Good performances by both girls, although the second half with Lexi was much better, since Kala was only tied up hands in front I hate that! The spread-eagled electric shock scene with Lexi was the highlight. The first half was fast-forward material once I saw Emily's nasty tattoos yeah, I hate them that much.

The second half was definitely worthwhile, with an even better shock scene with Raven. She's a real pretty girl from the front, although likewise, she has a nasty tat on the small of her back that ruined the later rape scene for me Did I mention how much I hate tats? The one dud out of the bunch that I saw. I ordered this one for cute little Kirsten. Well, she's still awfully cute, but unfortunately, she can't act. At least not in this movie. She almost acted bored.

Didn't emote much, not even when being shocked with a stun gun. BTW, they blew that illusion in the way it was filmed.

You could tell the current wasn't coming out of the taser when it touched her skin. I know it's being faked, I don't want to able to see that it's faked, though. Only saw the first half of it, but liked what I saw. This is Raven again. They have her tied, ballgagged and shocked with a stun gun, and the girl knows how to play a victim.

When I edit this for my highlights, I'll have to cut out any part where they flip her over and show her big ugly tattoo. Up next time is the one I was initially looking forward to the most, Basement Schoolgirl. But that also stars the aforementioned Kirsten and now I'm not so sure it's gonna be as good as I had hoped.

I'll let you guys know. Saturday, December 12th - I think you are referring to Blood Relic, which Raffish has clipped. Yep, that's the one. Ha ha, LTL, Ralphus agrees with me. Catherine Oxenberg in Lair of the White Worm. You know maybe it's because they aren't wearing any hair other than on the head it's starting to appeal to me.

She has a nice shine on her from the beads of sweat but when you figure he is using a cigar on her he can get rid of the hair. Then again the smell of burning hair is almost as bad as wet dog. I remember a little snippet where they used a candle to burn off the hair.

We were told the secret was to burn a little and put it out. Just enough to start to tingle but not enough to cause harm. I guess in our fantasy we hope to see that fine line crossed. Thanks for giving us your take on the PKF Studios films. While I did appreciate the insights, I am a little worried that I may have to return this book that I bought you for Christmas. Or was the scene inspired by the drawing? Why do you think you only see him in long sleeves?

Hell, I know girls with tube-tops smaller than that. Thanks for the feedback. I think you hit upon the meaning of the company name. The hideous hair must be it. Lets hope you guys fare better this time. Donkey Punch ya say? And in a little tidbit, the guy who survived the crazy outback guy in Wolf Creek stars in this one.

I guess he needed a vacation after the outback. You guessed Wicked Lake? Reluctantly I guess I gotta give you a correct answer. There are three girls tied with their hands behind their backs but when one is singled out to perform a sex act on an old cripple, she is untied. She later bites the cock of the old fart and spits it out at one of the intruders as the other two sit passively by the entire time.

Entertainment wise Wicked Lake is average at best. Dismal is a dismally average horror flick. But in a refreshing break from all the mutant, inbred, cannibal, hill-people flicks, this one has mutant, inbred, cannibal, swamp people ;- Gimp wise Dismal has a fairly long sequence in which two girls are chained AOH in a seated position.

The movie is about 3 girls who hookup with 4 guys on a yacht. After all is said and done, and not meaning to ruin this for anyone wanting to see the film, all 4 of the guys are killed. One girl dies via rough sex, setting everything else in motion, and another commits suicide by jumping overboard. Gabriela Atar E-mail address: One thing I remember about the scene where the girl is strangled by the wire attached to the door: Even though there wasn't a lot of time to set her up in that predicament, the villian made sure that the poor girl lost her shirt and bra.

I guess they figured that you guys like to see nipples with your strangulation. Gabriela Saturday, December 12th - Of those last three movies, I've only seen "Wicked Lake. I mean, you have hot women who get naked at every opportunity, glimpses of some bondage equipment as a foreshadowing technique, and a home invasion committed by sex-starved weirdos. And then what happens? But "Dismal" looks like it has some promise.

Thanks for the brief descriptions of the PKF movies. Following A Canadian's example, I guess my Christmas gift to you of this woman would probably be a bad idea. I loved that scene in "Lair of the White Worm. I personally like to see nipples with any form of torture. But isn't this representative of the current sad state of torture in mainstream movies? Here, we are praising a film for just showing nipples, as if this is an added bonus. It should be a requirement!

And how often are mainstream scenes ruined by a simple lack of common sense by the filmmakers? How many more times do we have to see wrists tied in front, easily escapable bonds, loose OTM gags with no packing, fully clothed victims, scissors and knives within reach of the victims?

I've said this before but any filmmaker who does a GIMP scene should be required to first view PD's "Rope Tutorial" on how to easily--and securely--tie up and gag females. It would make their movies much more plausible. Seeing the new daily pic , I'm guessing that Lizard Men have a thing for exposed nipples too.

Gabriela Sunday, December 13th - I dunno how I missed that Bella Morte one. Definitely let me know if you find any other AOH stuff. Thanks also for the lead on Dismal. Looks like there is putz action in that though. Sunday, December 13th - I've seen the movie "Blood Relic". Now there's a villain who has his priorities straight. The girl must always lose her shirt and bra.

Even if time is short, a true GIMPer always makes time. Is this the Blood Relic with Debbie Rochon? I saw a clip of this showing a group of guys and gals playing strip poker; they were all losing their shirts and bras, for the girls except Debbie, who was winning. But she flashed a tit and asked one of the mopey girls, "Does that make you feel better? That is the same "Blood Relic" movie. There is a strip poker scene, and a scene where a girl is forced to strip down to her panties at knife point.

If I remember right, the "mopey girl" who replies to Debbie Rochon is the one who gets strangled. And it's gotten soooo chilly lately! Do I have to? Badger I was just now perusing the New Release section of my local independent video store and the box for a movie title "Run Bitch Run" caught my eye. Anyone have any intel on this? I plan to make a return trip to the store in a few days. Tell me about it. Especially since the first girl the nude model was really hot.

Run Bitch Run has been on my radar too. Apparently, there are two versions, a PG13 and a more explicit one. Check out the URL above. Seems there's some rape in "Run Bitch Run" but maybe not a lot of bondage. Clip starts off with Elise strung up naked AOH, and a spreader bar tied to her ankles. For the first couple of minutes, Elise is just fondled and ravished above and below the waist by the villain.

After this, the villain starts applying short jolts with the taser all over her body. Elise struggles nicely and looks pretty good. After a few minutes, the villain starts applying long jolts, especially to her pussy, which eventually snuffs her.

We then see a few pics of her in a slideshow format. My main complaint of this movie is that it's short and unimaginative. Its just 6 minutes of tasering after 2 minutes of fondling.

Elise does some decent struggling but it would've been great to mix the tasering up with some punching, whipping, slapping, or even some dialogue. I give this one a B. Despite your criticism, you still gave it a fairly good grade. Elise can look pretty nice sometimes. I would have liked to have gotten that clip but I really didn't care for the setup of that particular one.

I'd like to hear why it worked for you. And I'll tell you why it doesn't for me. But before we do that. Which of the following do you consider the correct acting response to electro torture? Curl up in a fetal position? Roll from side to side? Rapidly sit-up and flop back down repeatedly similar to Linda Blair in The Exorcist?

Tense up, become rigid and start twitching? All of the above? Fill in your own answer here. I can't tell if you want me to wait until the others answer the poll question, but seeing as I just took another look at both Lexi's and Raven's shock scenes again to prepare for your challenging question, here's my take.

I preferred Raven's scene in a few ways. Number one, I usually prefer bare wire taped directly to the nipple over clamps. I've used both in real life and I like the direct contact of wire to skin. Also, halfway through Raven's scene, the bad guys took one of the wires off her nipple and taped it to her clit. A little extra pain in a most sensitive area.

Now, to compare the two, Lexi's shock scene was a bit more subtle. The way she reacted was more similar to your "D" answer: She tensed up, become rigid and start twitching. Raven's was more obvious, more of a whole body spasm with a bit of shaking back and forth. It was almost as if she was getting fucked by an invisible man.

Indeed, I could imagine being on top of her pounding away inside of her while she was being zapped. It turned me on. Which was the better performance? You would probably say Lexi's because it's supposedly more realistic. Yeah, you're not supposed to be able to move when current comes in contact with the body I know a little bit about science. But you know what?

These are fantasy movies. When I see a girl get shocked, I like to see her twitch spasmodically in pain. I like to hear her scream like it really hurts her. Rick Masters of ZFX adds animated sparking effects to his later electroshock torture scenes. Hell, no, but it adds to the fantasy. He even had smoke coming out of a pussy as it was being shocked. Well, you tell me if you ever saw that before from a company like Insex, which used a real tens unit and never faked a thing.

Electric shock is one of my favorite tortures, but the effectiveness of a particular scene is really dependent on the acting of the girl being shocked, as well as how well the filmmakers pull off the illusion. In the aforementioned Hogtie Killer 3 , Kirsten barely moved, just lightly twitched when a stun gun was applied to her bare skin.

She also didn't scream. She might as well have been sleeping through the whole thing, since she was already on her back in bed.

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